05 was used to analyze differences in size between the two strain

05 was used to analyze differences in size between the two strains. Thermal tolerance assay Gravid wild-type worms were hypochlorite lysed and transferred to NGM plates containing either OP50 or GD1. Ten L4 larvae per plate (three plates were used for each condition) were subjected to 35°C heat stress and monitored for survival until all the worms on OP50-seeded plates were exterminated. Survival was assayed

by gently prodding with a platinum wire. Dead worms were removed. The assay was conducted four times. Student’s t-test at each time point was used to assess differences of survival at a significance level of p < 0.05. Juglone survival assay Gravid wild-type worms were hypochlorite lysed and eggs transferred to NGM plates containing either CH5424802 OP50 or GD1. Approximately 30 L4 worms were then placed in a 30 μL drop of S-media

containing 250 μM juglone (Sigma) from a 12 mM stock solution in 100% ethanol. A drop of S-media containing an equal amount of alcohol was used as a vehicle control. The worms were maintained in the drop for 20 min and washed off the slide with 100 μL S-media onto NGM plates containing OP50. Worms were scored for survival 18 hours later. For bacterial juglone survival assays, OP50 and GD1 were grown overnight in their respective media containing antibiotics. Cultures were diluted to 1.0 OD600 nm in water, and resuspended in either 125 μM juglone or equal amounts of ethanol as vehicle control. The cells were incubated at 37°C with aeration (250 rpm) and at the indicated time points 3 μL BIRB 796 order aliquots were spotted onto LB plates containing the respective antibiotic in 1/10 dilutions. Plates were incubated at 37°C for 12 to 16 hours. The assay was conducted three times. Determination of coliform counts Gravid

wild-type worms Ureohydrolase were hypochlorite lysed onto NGM plates containing OP50:pFVP25.1, GD1:pFVP25.1, AN120:pFVP25.1 or AN180:pFVP25.1. The hatchlings were fed the designated diets and collected at the following stages: L4, two-, five-, ten-, or fourteen-days of adulthood. Five worms from each SGC-CBP30 ic50 condition were washed in 5 μL of S-media with 0.1% Triton X-100 on a foodless NGM plate for 30 s. The worms were washed four times in total and then placed in a 0.5 mL microcentrifuge tube containing 20 μL of the S-media with 0.1% Triton X-100. Worms were mechanically disrupted with a micro-pestle (Sigma) for 200 strokes. The micro-pestle was placed in a 1.5 mL Eppendorf tube containing 100 μL S-media for 30 s, and the contents of the two tubes were combined. The contents of the tube were mixed well and spread onto plates containing 100 μg/mL ampicillin. Serial dilutions (1:1,000, 1:10,000 and 1:100,000) were prepared from worm lysates derived from the OP50- and AN180-diet conditions at the day two, five, ten, and fourteen adult time points. Serial dilutions (1:100, 1:1,000, and 1:10,000) were prepared from worm lysates derived from the GD1- and AN120-diet conditions at the day five, ten, and 14 adult time points.

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