Lung cancer death rates are decreasing in most developed countries, where tobacco consumption LOXO-101 cost is losing its importance. In contrast, lung
cancer rates and mortality are increasing in developing countries, including many examples in Latin America. In Brazil, 27 320 new cases of lung cancer are estimated for the year 2012, most of which will be diagnosed at advanced stages. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of all lung cancers and, despite recent advances in its treatment, this subtype is still a significant 4SC-202 cost contributor to the burden of lung cancer in the world. Management of metastatic lung cancer involves palliation of symptoms and prolongation of survival with systemic treatment. Platinum-based doublet chemotherapies HM781-36B mouse are still the standard first-line treatment for patients not harboring an activating mutation, who may benefit from first-line target therapy
such as erlotinib, geftinib, and crizotinib. Addition of bevacizumab to the platinum-based backbone has demonstrated efficacy in two randomized phase III trials,[4,5] leading to US Food and Drug Administration approval of this agent as a first-line therapy for non-squamous NSCLC. In the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 4599 trial, bevacizumab added to carboplatin and paclitaxel improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with the platinum doublet alone in 878 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. The hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS were 0.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57–0.77, p < 0.001) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.67–0.92, p = 0.003) respectively, in favor of treatment with bevacizumab. The median OS improved from 10.3 months to 12.3 months and response rates increased from 15% to 36% with the addition of bevacizumab. Furthermore, in a subset analysis of patients with adenocarcinoma histology, bevacizumab-based therapy
improved the median OS from 10.3 months to 14.2 months. The AVAiL (Avastin in Lung) trial evaluated the efficacy of two doses of bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) or placebo 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase added to a 3-week schedule of cisplatin and gemcitabine. PFS (the primary endpoint of this study) was significantly improved with bevacizumab-based therapy versus the placebo combination (bevacizumab 7.5 mg/kg: HR 0.75, p = 0.003; bevacizumab 15 mg/kg: HR 0.82, p = 0.03). Although the median OS in the AVAiL trial exceeded 13 months in both bevacizumab treatment arms, the PFS benefit seen with bevacizumab therapy did not translate into a statistically significant OS benefit. Both phase III trials[4,5] reported safety profiles for the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy, with a mild increase in some toxicities related to bevacizumab, such as hypertension, proteinuria, and bleeding events.