1). The first site is located at the lower terrace of the Rio Caquetá near Araracuara (AR) community (0°37′S, 72°23′W). The flood plain of the river dates back from the late glacial to Holocene (from 13,000 years BP to the present), whereas the low terraces of the Rio Caquetá were deposited in the middle pleniglacial
period (about 65,000–26,000 years BP) (Duivenvoorden and Lips 1993). The plots studied are part of a mosaic of primary and secondary forests and agricultural fields originating from slash-and-burn agriculture (i.e. chagras) of different NVP-HSP990 ages (Fig. 2). According to the classification of Duivenvoorden and Lips (1993) the vegetation on the well-drained parts of the lower terraces belongs to the Goupia glabra—Clathrotropis macrocarpa community and structurally this is a forest with a high above ground biomass. The texture of the soils in the plots varies between sandy and loamy sandy in the A horizon and change to argillic sand in the
B horizon (Duivenvoorden and Lips 1993). All profiles show an accumulation of iron, but the intensity and depth vary, thus indicating differences in drainage. In general the soils are poor in nutrients (Vester 1997). Near Araracuara (AR) six 10 × 40 m permanent plots established by Vester (1997), who explored the structural aspects of the forests, were studied with respect to macrofungal diversity. Data on tree species composition, tree biomass, forest architecture and soil http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/Vorinostat-saha.html characteristics were taken from his studies (Vester 1997; Vester and Cleef 1998). Next to a mature forest (AR-MF), the plots represented different regeneration stages, NCT-501 mouse namely 18-year old (AR-18y), 23-year old (AR-23y), 30-year old (AR-30y), 42-year old (AR-42y) and a recently slashed and burned plot that was one-year old (AR-1y) (Fig. 2). Unfortunately, the primary forest plot as selected by Vester was changed into a chagra at the onset of our investigations and became AR-1y that represented the most disturbed situation. Hence, we selected a new primary forest plot (AR-MF) AR-13324 cost during the second visit
to AR. Fig. 1 Location of the plots studied in Caquetá and Amazonas departments in Colombian Amazonia. For the Araracuara site: AR-MF is a fragment of a mature forest, AR-1y belongs to a 1 year-old chagra, AR-18y is an 18-year old forest, AR-23y a 23 year-old forest, AR-30y a 30 year-old forest, and AR-42y is a 42 year-old forest and AR-PR is an upland mature forest dominated by Pseudomonotes tropenbosii (Dipterocarpaceae). For the Amacayacu site: AM-FPF is a flood plain forest close to the Amazonas River, AM-MF is a mature forest, AM-MFIS is a mature forest located in a flooding area at Mocagua Island in the Amazonas River, close to the Natural Park Amacayacu and AM-RF is a regeneration forest of ca. 36 year-old. The maps are adapted from Google maps (www.maps.google.nl) Fig.