1C). In contrast cells challenged with heat-killed P. gingivalis at an MOI:100 for 24 hours did not show any signs
of DNA fragmentation (Fig. 4D). Figure 3 Cell Death Detection ELISA was used to detect DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis. HGECs were challenged with live and heat-killed P. gingivalis 33277 at MOI:10 and MOI:100 for 4, 24, and 48 hours. Negative control was unchallenged HGECs in media. Positive control was HGECs challenged with camptothecin 4 μg/ml. Values represent the means ± selleckchem SD of at least two experiments. Statistical comparisons are to the unchallenged negative control cells (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01). Figure 4 TUNEL assay to detect DNA fragmentation by confocal microscopy. Images are fluorescent confocal staining at ×600 magnification. Negative control was unchallenged HGECs (A). Positive control was HGECs treated with DNase 1000 U/ml (B). HGECs were challenged with live (C) and heat-killed (D) P. gingivalis 33277 MOI:100 for 24 h. Challenge with MOI:100 for 4 h and MOI:10 for 4 and 24 h gave no staining (data not shown). Additional plates (E to G) show challenge with live P. gingivalis 33277 at MOI:100 for 24 h that were pretreated with leupeptin, a selective Rgp inhibitor (E), zFKck, a selective Kgp inhibitor
(F), or a cocktail of both inhibitors to inhibit total gingipain activity (G). Challenge with P. gingivalis W50 (H), the RgpA/RgpB mutant E8 (I), the Kgp mutant K1A (J) or the RgpA/RgpB/Kgp mutant KDP128 (K), at MOI:100 for 24 h are also shown. P. gingivalis-induced apoptosis in HGECs is dependent on either Arg- or Belinostat research buy Lys- gingipains P. gingivalis-induced
apoptosis has been shown previously to depend on gingipain activity in fibroblasts and endothelial cells [7, 8, 10, 11]. Gingipains are cysteine proteases produced by P.gingivalis that cleave Methane monooxygenase after an arginine (Arg) or a lysine (Lys) residue. To elucidate the role of gingipains in our P. gingivalis-induced apoptosis model, HGECs were challenged with whole live bacteria (Fig. 4) as well as filtered bacterial supernatant (Fig. 5) of the following strains: AZD2014 ic50 wild-type P. gingivalis 33277; wild-type W50; the Arg-gingipain (RgpA/RgpB) double mutant E8; the Lys-gingipain (Kgp) mutant K1A; or the Arg-Lys-gingipain (RgpA/RgpB/Kgp) triple mutant KDP128. All strains were utilized live at an MOI:100 and the filtered supernatants at a 10× dilution. DNA fragmentation was assessed by TUNEL after 24 hours. HGECs were also challenged with live wild-type P. gingivalis 33277 or its filtered supernatant previously incubated with leupeptin, a specific Rgp inhibitor, zFKck, a specific Kgp inhibitor, or a cocktail of both gingipain inhibitors. Untreated cells were used as a negative control and cells treated with DNase 1000 U/ml were used as a positive control.