(2010) suggest that this tissue also participates in the expressi

(2010) suggest that this tissue also participates in the expression and propagation of seizures. The cerebellum coordinates smooth motor activities and processes muscle position (Hansen and Koeppen, 2002). More studies are needed to evaluate the association of these tissues with epileptic seizures. The results of the present study demonstrate that both organic and conventional grape juices show important neuroprotective effects against PTZ-induced oxidative damage in rats. This effect could be important in reducing neuronal damage and, therefore, allow for a better quality of life for epileptic patients. Additionally, the open field test (Fig. 1) shows that neither grape juice affects

the behavior (locomotor and exploratory activities) of animals. Still, organic grape juice shows a tendency to decrease the anxiety of the rats. These CH5424802 order findings indicate that grape juices will provide further insights into natural neuroprotective compounds and may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for epileptic

Selleck Selisistat patients in pharmaceutical or nutraceutical areas. The authors would like to thank the staff of the Laboratories of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants, especially Aline Cerbaro, Bárbara Costa and Taís Pozzer, as well as José Inácio Gonzalez for their contributions to the treatment of the animals. We also thank Vinícola Perini and Cooperativa Aecia de Agricultores Ecologistas

Ltda. for providing the grape juices. We thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS)-PRONEX/CNPq number 10/0044-3 for their financial support of this research study. “
“The authors regret that in the original manuscript, the wrong Western blot was erroneously displayed for actin. This has been corrected in this revised panel. Correct actin immunoblot for Fig. 9A is shown below. Figure options Download full-size image Download as PowerPoint slideThe authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. “
“Gangliosides are a large family of glycosphingolipids, structurally characterized from by a ceramide hydrophobic core linked to an oligosaccharide chain, which usually contains at least one sialic acid residue. They are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus through sequential glycosylation and sialylation of a glucosylceramide moiety (Tettamanti, 2004). Gangliosides amount to 10% of the brain membrane lipid content and act as the functional lipid component of the membrane rafts; they play important biochemical roles in cell biology, taking part in some processes like cell differentiation and maturation, synaptogenesis, intercellular communication, neuronal plasticity, and cell death/survival processes.

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