2q25.125 and they identified a rare four-marker
haplotype in the 3′ untranslated region of the PRKCA gene. They further demonstrated that this low-frequency haplotype showed a trend of association in a sample of unrelated schizophrenia cases and controls (661 cases, 2824 controls, P=0.078, OR=1.9) and was significant in a pooled sample of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and bipolar disorder patients (P=0.037, OR=1.9). This association was more significant in a stratified sample of males with schizophrenia Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical than in the pooled sample. However, this association was not replicated in independent samples from Ireland and Bulgaria. Caroll et al67 also reported that common SNPs in the inhibitor Veliparib linkage region showed association Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with schizophrenia in a United Kingdom sample, although these SNPs did not replicate across other samples. A possible interpretation of this scenario is that both common and rare SNPs in the PRKCA gene region may be associated with schizophrenia and related disorders. Although some interesting
candidate genes have been identified using linkage methods, a major criticism of these studies is that linkage signals are observed on most of the chromosomes and cover thousands of genes. Furthermore, small effect sizes that are now expected for schizophrenia-associated polymorphisms (OR<1.2) and locus heterogeneity further reduces Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the chances of finding a truly significant region in linkage studies. In addition, collection of large numbers of families with multiple selleck compound affected individuals for detecting these small effect sizes is labor-intensive
and expensive. However, in contrast to genome-wide association Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical studies (GWAS), largescale linkage studies have the advantageous ability to detect regions with multiple rare as well as common variants (allelic heterogeneity) in one or more susceptibility genes.64,65,68 Furthermore, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical focusing on families with multiple affected individuals likely enriches for transmitted genetic factors and reduces etiologic heterogeneity. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies The limited power of linkage studies to identify genes of modest effect led Risch and Merikangas69 to propose the usage of association studies for disease Carfilzomib gene identification in disorders with complex architecture such as schizophrenia. The primary advantage of the latter strategy was the possibility to recruit a large sample size with enough power to detect loci of moderate effect. However, they recognized that an important limitation was the lack of availability of technology to assay a large number of polymorphisms across the genome (up to 100 000). This limitation was overcome by the development of prototype SNP chips containing initially only 500 SNPs,70 however progressing rapidly to the present-day commercially available chips containing over a million SNPs.