2. Experimental Polysorbates 80, sodium chloride, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), tragacanth, and magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum) were purchased from Merck, Germany. Acetaminophen was kindly donated by Chemidarou Pharmaceutical Co., Iran. 2.1. Preparation of Suspensions
Finely powdered (120 mesh) acetaminophen (3.2%) was used to prepare suspensions using Veegum (2%), CMC (0.5%), PVP (1%), or tragacanth (0.75%) alone and their different combinations as structural vehicles (Table 1). Polysorbate 80 (0.35%) and sodium chloride (0.02 and 0.04%) were added as wetting and flocculating #GSK1120212 keyword# agents, respectively. Then physical stability and rheological properties of the formulations were evaluated. Table 1 Composition of different formulations of acetaminophen
suspensions. 2.2. Physical Stability After preparation, sedimentation volume (F) of the suspensions was measured daily, and heights of sediments were measured when there was no change in 3 consecutive readings. In order to evaluate the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ease of redispersion, suspension samples were rotated periodically at 180 degree. The number of revolutions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (n) was recorded when the suspension restored to homogeneity . The crystal growth acetaminophen in different suspensions that were stored two months at room temperature was examined by optical microscope (Olympus, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical R4, Japan). 2.3. Rheological Assessment Rheological behavior of the acetaminophen
suspensions was determined using a Brookfield viscometer (Dial reading LVT, USA with no. 3 spindle). Viscosity of samples was determined at 0.3, 0.6, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 30, and 60rpm after 1min rotation at the room temperature. The results were plotted as rheograms and their rheological behaviors were determined by fitting on the corresponding Newtonian and non-Newtonian equations (1): τN=η′δ,Log δ=Nlogτ−logη′, (1) where τ is shear stress, δ and η′ are shear rate and viscosity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical coefficient, respectively. N is an indicator for defining the type of flow. Since the viscosity of pseudoplastic substances decreases with increasing rate of shear, the apparent viscosity of the formulations at shear rates corresponding to 30rpm was obtained from the slope of the tangent to the curve at that point. The area of the hysteresis loop of the rheograms can be calculated from the difference between the areas under the up curve and the down curve by using the trapezoidal unless rule [4, 6, 7]. 3. Results and Discussion Comparison of the sedimentation volume in acetaminophen suspension without any suspending agent (formulation F1) with those suspensions containing one kind of structural vehicle showed that increasing tragacanth and Veegam could increase the sedimentation volume considerably (Table 2). The highest and the lowest sedimentation volumes were observed in suspensions containing tragacanth (86.5±1.25%) and PVP (13 ± 0.