During their initial familiarization session, participants completed a questionnaire concerning their current use
of sport beverages. Anthropometric data and reported exercise frequency and duration are listed in Table 1. The study was approved by, and conducted in accordance with, guidelines of the University of Alabama’s Institutional Review Board, and participants provided written informed consent prior to beginning any study procedures. Table 1 Characteristics of participants Men(n = 23) Women(n = 13) Total(n = 36) Age (years) 23 ± 3 24 ± 3 23 ± 3 Height (cm) 177 ± 7 165 ± 5 173 ± 9 Weight (kg) 77.6 ± 8.9 60.5 ± 9.1 71.4 ± 12.1 Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 24.6 ± 2.2 SB202190 cell line 22.3 ± 2.9 23.8 ± 2.7 Body Fat (%) 10.3 ± 4.8 18.2 ± 4.6 13.2 ± 6.0 Aerobic Exercise Sessions (per week) 3.8 ± 1.1 4.5 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 1.1 Average Exercise Session Duration (minutes) 48.2 ± 20.5 57.3 ± 19.0 51.6 ± 20.1 Data are mean ± SD. Familiarization session Prior to beginning experimental trials, participants completed a familiarization
session designed to acquaint them with the exercise protocols and subjective rating scales. This session also permitted the estimation of total 1-h exercise sweat loss, as determined by body weight Go6983 change, which was used to control fluid intake in all subsequent treatment sessions. Participants were instructed to drink ~500 mL of water between their last meal and the time they went to bed the night before testing and a second 500 mL of water during the 2 hours before reporting to the laboratory. They were also instructed to avoid alcohol and caffeine during the 24-h period prior to experimental trials and to arrive at the laboratory at least 2 hours
after eating. Upon arrival, body weight while wearing shorts, a t-shirt, and undergarments was measured using a beam-balance scale. Height was measured using of a stadiometer integrated with the scale (Detecto, Webb City, MO) and body mass index (kg/m2) was recorded. The sum of skinfolds from three sites (Lange Caliper, Beta Technology Inc., Deer Park, NY) were recorded in accordance with American College of Sports Medicine guidelines  and used to estimate body fat percentage . Heart rate (HR) was recorded (Team System Monitor, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) continuously in 5-s intervals while subjects sat quietly for 15 min in a dimly lit room. The average HR from min 5 to 15 was determined. At the end of the 15– min rest period, a capillary blood sample was collected using the finger prick method. Whole blood was collected in a 100–μL fluoride/heparin/nitrite-containing capillary tube and mixed for 3 min before being analyzed in triplicate (PGM7 Analyzer, Analox Instruments, Lunenburg, MA) to confirm participants exhibited a normal blood glucose profile. The average of the 2 closest measurements was recorded. A Profile of Mood States-Brief questionnaire (POMS)  was eFT-508 order administered prior to exercise.