13 MHz, and equipped with a standard 5-mm HX selleck inhibitor inverse probe. One-dimensional 1H NMR spectra were obtained using a single 90° pulse experiment, solvent suppression was achieved by irradiating the solvent peak during the relaxation delay of 2 s. A total of 128 transients of 8 K data points spanning a spectral ABT-737 in vitro width of 24.03 ppm were collected. An exponential line-broadening function of 1 Hz was applied to the free induction decay (FID) prior to Fourier transform (FT). All spectra were referenced in chemical shift value to the TMSP signal at 0 ppm. The 1H NMR spectra
in the 10.0-5.0 and 4.5-0.5 ppm regions were subdivided into 0.005 ppm integral regions and integrated, reducing each spectrum into 616 independent variables. The reduced spectra were normalized to total intensity to remove any concentration effects. DCFH2 oxidation analysis Differentiated myotubes in 96 well plates were analyzed as described earlier . Briefly, myotubes were pre-incubated with different concentrations of CMH (0.04-10 μM) for 24 h. Myotubes were then washed and loaded with 10 μM 2′,7′dichlorodihydroflourescein
diacetate (Molecular Probes, Inc. Eugene, OR) (H2DCF-DA) for 2 h at 37°C (95% air, 5% CO2) washed again, 100 μM H2O2 was added and intracellular DCFH2 oxidation was determined by fluorescence from 2,7-dichloroflourescein (DCF) at excitation and emission wavelengths of 490 selleck and 515 nm, respectively, at 37°C with a microtiter plate reader (Synergy 2, BioTek Instruments Inc., Vermont, USA). Data is presented as average of 12 replicate wells after background correction. Data analyses Multivariate data analysis was performed using the Unscrambler software version 9.2 (Camo, Oslo, Norway). Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on the metabonomic and the proteomic data to explore intrinsic biochemical dissimilarities between control cells and CMH treated cells. For the metabonomic data, the NMR signals were used as continuous X-parameters, while the treatment
consisted the discriminant regressors (control = 0, treated = 1). For the proteomic data, the relative spot volumes obtained by image analysis of the 2-DGE gels were used as continuous X-parameters. Protein spots contributing least to the PLS-DA models were removed by Jack-knifing  through variable selection until an optimal calibrated and validated model was achieved, Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase and based on the remaining spots significant (P < 0.05) regression coefficients were identified using the uncertainty test. For elucidation of correlations between metabonomic and proteomic data, a PLS-2 regression was carried out with NMR variables as X and proteomic spots identified as significant from the D-PLS model as y-variables. A students’ t-test was carried out to compare the concentrations of each myotube protein in the triplicate controls and CMH treated C2C12 cells. A two-tailed paired t-test was used with a 0.95% confidence interval.