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“Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is an environmental all Gram-negative bacterium that causes a severe and often fatal disease called melioidosis. This is an important cause of sepsis in south-east Asia and northern Australia, a geographic distribution that mirrors the presence of B. pseudomallei in the environment [1]. Melioidosis may develop following bacterial inoculation or inhalation

and occurs most often in people with regular contact with contaminated soil and water [1]. Clinical manifestations of melioidosis are highly variable and range from fulminant septicemia to mild localized infection. The overall mortality rate is 40% in northeast Thailand (rising to 90% in patients with severe sepsis) and 20% in northern Australia [1, 2]. A major feature of melioidosis is that bacterial eradication is difficult to achieve. Fever clearance time is often prolonged (median 8 days), antimicrobial therapy is required for 12-20 weeks, and relapse occurs in around 10% of patients despite an appropriate course of antimicrobial therapy [3, 4]. The basis for persistence in the infected human host is unknown, although several observations made to date may be relevant to the clinical behaviour of this organism [2, 5]. B. pseudomallei can resist the action of bactericidal selleck substances including complement and antimicrobial peptides in human serum [6–8]. B. pseudomallei can also survive after uptake by a range of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells.

Climate change induced alterations in biodiversity, and the recip

Climate change induced alterations in biodiversity, and the reciprocal effects of those selleck screening library alterations on climate change itself, are too large to be ignored. Extinctions have begun, and many more are projected. Species are moving to track their preferred climates, the timing of biological and extreme events cued to climate is shifting. New plant and animal associations are emerging, while formerly well-established ones are disappearing. Everything, from the colour of the plants across vast areas to the cycling of moisture between plants and the

atmosphere, helps determine climate. The cycle is completed as the interactions of climate with biodiversity determine where particular organisms, or groups of organisms, can live, in turn influencing where, how far, and how fast, they are able to adapt to a new situation. The amount of the Sun`s energy reflected (albedo) or absorbed changes when the vegetation changes. The replacement of lichen-dominated tundra by coniferous find more forest attributed to climate warming is darkening boreal latitudes, increasing heat absorption and causing further warming. Natural carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are large relative to emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, but the human generated emissions are nevertheless sufficient to increase atmospheric

concentrations to the extent of reaching critical tipping points with respect to their effects on the biota. How much and how fast CO2 fluxes will change depends on what is happening in other parts of the worldwide carbon cycle (Hannah 2011). Understanding the sinks, sources, and fluxes of the carbon cycle is another priority, indeed a prerequisite, in getting to grips with the full extent of possible interactions between climate and biodiversity (Behera

2011). Biodiversity and climate change are interconnected, not only through climate change effects on biodiversity, but also through changes in biodiversity that can affect climate change. Observed eltoprazine changes in climate have already adversely affected biodiversity at the species and ecosystem level, and further deteriorations in biodiversity are inevitable with further changes in climate (Malhi et al. 2010). The resilience of biodiversity to climate change can be enhanced by reducing non-climatic stresses in combination with conservation, restoration and sustainable PLX3397 in vivo management strategies. Human pressures on the ecosystems are causing changes and losses at rates not seen historically. People are changing ecosystems more rapidly and more extensively than ever before in human history. Climate change adds yet another pressure on natural systems. Climate is, of course, crucial for almost every aspect of an organism’s biology, ecology, physiology, and behavior.