72-0.92), meconium aspiration syndrome (aOR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.19-0.48), and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (aOR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.97). Similar findings were seen for women who were induced at 40 weeks compared to delivery later.\n\nCONCLUSION: Induction of labor in low-risk women at term is not associated with increased risk of cesarean delivery compared to delivery later.”
“Objectives: The epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in children is poorly understood. We sought to determine national estimates of the incidence of pediatric SIRS and its corresponding clinical etiologies presenting to US emergency
departments (EDs) using current definitions.\n\nMethods: We analyzed ED visits by children younger than 18 years from 2007 to 2010 in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We used a Bayesian logical framework of prior probability selleck chemicals distributions for white blood cell count result to make minimum, moderate, and maximum estimates for pediatric SIRS.\n\nResults:
Taking the minimum and maximum estimates as modified credible intervals, we report an overall incidence of pediatric SIRS presenting to the ED to be 21.7% (95% modified credible interval, 18.1%-25.4%). The national moderate estimate of pediatric ED visits MI-503 mw presenting with SIRS was approximately 6.2 million per year. Children with SIRS and without SIRS had similar baseline characteristics, but SIRS patients were younger (2.9 vs 5.5 years; P < 0.0001), had higher triage acuity (emergent, 9.0 vs 6.3%; P < 0.0001), and were more often admitted (7.0 vs 2.4%; P < 0.0001) than children without SIRS. Based on the moderate estimate, infection was the most common (53%) associated etiology, followed by trauma (10%). Other traditional categories of SIRS were extremely rare. Of note, 35% of children with SIRS did not fall into any of the previously established categories.\n\nConclusions: Pediatric SIRS is common;
its associated clinical contexts include potentially dangerous etiologies; many cases of pediatric SIRS can be recognized in triage; and there is significant heterogeneity in the etiology of pediatric SIRS.”
“We present a web-based pediatric CT dose tool that estimates effective dose based on dose length product, learn more patient age and region of body scanned. The tool also provides an estimate of additional lifetime risk of cancer from CT exams. These estimations are based on the interpolation of factors from published methods. The calculator serves as an educational tool that can be used by radiologists and clinicians to better understand CT dose and its associated risks.”
“Chicken broodiness is a polygenic trait controlled by autosomal genes. Prolactin gene is a candidate of great interest in molecular studies of broodiness. However, another candidate dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene has not been studied extensively.
PD subjects and 343 matched controls were recruited from the Agricultural Health Study, a study of licensed pesticide applicators and spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. PD was confirmed by in-person examination. Paraquat use and covariates were determined by interview. We genotyped subjects for homozygous deletions of GSTM1 (GSTM1*0) and GSTT1 (GSTT1*0) and tested interaction between paraquat use and genotype using logistic regression. Two hundred MDV3100 in vitro and twenty-three (52%) subjects had GSTM1*0, 95 (22%) had GSTT1*0, and 73 (17%; all men) used paraquat. After adjustment for potential confounders, there was no interaction with GSTM1. In contrast, GSTT1 genotype significantly modified the association between paraquat and PD. In men with functional GSTT1, the odds ratio Nutlin-3 molecular weight (OR) for association of PD with paraquat use was 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63.6); in men with GSTT1*0, the OR was 11.1 (95% CI:
3.044.6; P interaction: 0.027). Although replication is needed, our results suggest that PD risk from paraquat exposure might be particularly high in individuals lacking GSTT1. GSTT1*0 is common and could potentially identify a large subpopulation at high risk of PD from oxidative stressors such as paraquat. (C) 2012 Movement Disorder Society”
“Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations find more are associated with human rhinovirus (HRV) lung infections for which there are no current effective antiviral therapies. To date, HRV infectivity of cells in vitro has been measured by a variety of biochemical and immunological methods. This paper describes the development of a high-throughput HRV infectivity assay using HeLa OHIO cells and a chemiluminescent-based
ATP cell viability system, CellTiter-Glo from Promega, to measure HRV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE). This CellTiter-Glo assay was validated with standard antiviral agents and employed to screen AstraZeneca compounds for potential antiviral activity. Compound potency values in this assay correlated well with the quantitative RT-PCR assay measuring HRV infectivity and replication in human primary airway epithelial cells. In order to improve pan-HRV screening capability, compound potency was also measured in the CellTiter-Glo assay with a combination of 3 different HRV serotypes. This HRV serotype combination assay could be used to identify quickly compounds with desirable broad spectrum antiviral activity. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Two critical stages of mammalian oocyte regulation are prophase I arrest, which is important for sustaining the oocyte pool, and the progression through meiosis I (MI) to produce fertilizable eggs. We have found that the spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubR1 regulates both stages in mouse oocytes.
\n\nResults: Four trials reported musculoskeletal disorders of ZOL treatment versus no ZOL, including 2684 patients treated with ZOL and 2712 patients without ZOL treatment. Compared to patients without ZOL treatment, patients treated with ZOL had a significantly higher risk of arthralgia (risk
ratio (RR): 1.162, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.096-1.232, P = 0.466 for heterogeneity) and bone pain (RR: 1.257, 95% CI: 1.149-1.376, PLX4032 datasheet P = 0.193 for heterogeneity). Three clinical trials reported the complications of upfront versus delayed ZOL treatment, including 1091 patients with upfront ZOL and 1110 patients with delayed ZOL. The rate of bone pain in upfront group (119/824) was significantly higher selleck than that in delayed group (74/836) (RR: 1.284, 95% CI: 1.135-1.453, P = 0.460 for heterogeneity).\n\nConclusions: Our meta-analysis suggested
that treatment with ZOL was significantly associated to the occurrence of arthralgia and bone pain. Moreover, higher rate of bone pain was observed in patients treated with upfront ZOL compared with delayed ZOL treatment. More attentions should be paid to patients treated with ZOL, especially for immediate ZOL. For patients with low risk of osteoporosis, immediate ZOL may be not needed due to additional musculoskeletal disorders and little benefit. Or it can be stopped after the occurrence of these adverse events.”
“Objective: We aimed to generate equation to predict arterial lactate (a-Lac) using venous lactate (v-Lac) and other lab data.\n\nMethods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on emergency patients in the emergency department for 6 months at a general hospital in Tokyo, Japan. We collected arterial and venous gas analysis data. Patients were eligible for entry into the study if an arterial blood gas analysis was required for appropriate diagnostic care by the treating physician. Univariate linear regression analysis was Liproxstatin-1 conducted to generate an equation to calculate a-Lac incorporating only v-Lac. A multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression model (p-value of
0.05 for entry, 0.1 for removal) was used to generate an equation including v-Lac and other potentially relevant variables. Bland-Altman plot was drawn and the two equations were compared for model fitting using R-squares.\n\nResults: Seventy-two arterial samples from 72 participants (61% male; mean age, 58.2 years) were included in the study. An initial regression equation was derived from univariate linear regression analysis:”(a-Lac) = -0.259 + (v-Lac) x 0.996″. Subsequent multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression analysis, incorporating v-Lac and Po-2, generated the following equation:”(a-Lac) = -0.469+(venous Po-2) x 0.005 + (v-Lac) x 0.997″. Calculated R-squares by single and multiple regression were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively.
MASPs were not detected in BAL, and were not produced by alveolar or tissue macrophages. MBL
significantly increased macrophage expression of Rac1/2/3. We provide evidence for Rac1/2/3 involvement in the MBL-mediated improvement in efferocytosis, and a rationale for investigating MBL as a supplement to existing therapies in smoking-related lung inflammation.”
“Co-stimulatory signaling pathway triggered by the binding of B7.1/B7.2 (CD80/86) of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to CD28 of T cells is required for optimal T-cell activation. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation, which competes with CD28 for B7.1/B7.2 binding with a greater affinity. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody against CTLA-4, has shown positive efficacy in a pivotal clinical trial for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and buy MLN4924 was approved by FDA. However, the cost of monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics might limit the number of patients treated. To develop a novel therapeutics specifically targeting CTLA-4, we constructed a DNA vaccine by cloning the sequence of CTLA-4 fused with a transmembrane domain sequence of placental
alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) into a mammalian expression plasmid, pVAC-1. Immunization with the resulting construct, pVAC-1-hCTLA-4, elicited antibody specific to human CTLA-4 with cross reactivity to murine CTLA-4, which was sufficient for inhibiting B16F10 tumor growth in c57BL/6 mice in the absence of measurable toxicity. Coupling liposome with pVAC-1-mCTLA-4 ST-1571 Mesylate could break tolerance to self-antigen in BALB/c mice and induce potent immunity against murine CTLA-4, and suppress growth of subcutaneous renal cell
carcinoma (Renca). (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All Bucladesine rights reserved.”
“We present a complete phylogeny of macroperforate planktonic foraminifer species of the Cenozoic Era (similar to 65 million years ago to present). The phylogeny is developed from a large body of palaeontological work that details the evolutionary relationships and stratigraphic (time) distributions of species-level taxa identified from morphology (‘morphospecies’). Morphospecies are assigned to morphogroups and ecogroups depending on test morphology and inferred habitat, respectively. Because gradual evolution is well documented in this clade, we have identified many instances of morphospecies intergrading over time, allowing us to eliminate ‘pseudospeciation’ and ‘pseudoextinction’ from the record and thereby permit the construction of a more natural phylogeny based on inferred biological lineages. Each cladogenetic event is determined as either budding or bifurcating depending on the pattern of morphological change at the time of branching. This lineage phylogeny provides palaeontologically calibrated ages for each divergence that are entirely independent of molecular data.
3% reported having hypertension. Only 14% of the subjects with SHTG reported using statins, and 4.0% reported using fibrates. The factors significantly associated with having SHTG included high-density lipoprotein < 40 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR) 11.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.28 to 20.86), non high-density lipoprotein 160 to 189 mg/dl (OR 9.74, 95% CI 1.68 to 56.40) or non high-density lipoprotein >= 190 mg/dl(OR 24.99, 95% CI 3.90 to 160.31), diabetes mellitus AZD9291 cell line (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.45 to 6.37), and chronic renal disease (OR 7.32, 95% CI 1.45 to 36.94). In conclusion, SHTG is rare among adults in the United States and the use of pharmacologic intervention is low among those with SHTG.
(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (Am J Cardiol
“The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area.\n\nWe analysed the data from a population-based cohort of 1,048 non-diabetic, normotensive men and women (aged 30-60 years) in whom insulin sensitivity was measured by the glucose clamp technique (M/I index; average glucose infusion rate/steady-state insulin concentration) and beta cell IPI-549 chemical structure function was estimated by mathematical modelling of the oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and 3 years later.\n\nSeventy-seven per cent of the participants had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 5% were glucose intolerant both at baseline and follow up; glucose tolerance worsened in 13% (progressors) and improved in 6% (regressors). The metabolic phenotype of the latter three groups was similar (higher prevalence of familial diabetes, older age, higher waist-to-hip
ratio, higher fasting and 2 h plasma glucose, higher fasting and 2 h plasma insulin, lower insulin sensitivity and reduced beta cell glucose sensitivity with increased absolute insulin secretion). Adjusting for these factors in a logistic model, progression was predicted by insulin resistance (bottom M/I quartile, OR 2.52 [95% CI 1.51-4.21]) and beta cell glucose insensitivity (bottom quartile, OR 2.39 [95% CI 1.6-3.93]) independently of waist-to-hip ratio (OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.13-1.84] for one SD). At follow up, insulin sensitivity and beta cell glucose sensitivity were unchanged in see more the stable NGT and stable non-NGT groups, worsened in progressors and improved in regressors.\n\nGlucose tolerance deteriorates over time in young, healthy Europids. Progressors, regressors and glucose-intolerant participants share a common baseline phenotype. Insulin sensitivity and beta cell glucose sensitivity predict and track changes in glucose tolerance independently of sex, age and obesity.”
“We employed segmented principal component analysis and regression, as a new methodology in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), to define new amino acid indices.
Long-term follow-up data over two years were available.RESULTS:\n\nAmong the patients studied AG-120 solubility dmso (mean age 62 years), 64% presented with acute coronary syndrome. A PCI procedure was associated
with a significant increase in TnT levels (higher than 0.1 mu g/L) in 238 patients (20%). Multivariate logistic regression identified presentation with acute coronary syndrome or myocardial infarction, no statin use at the time of the procedure, increased CRP and increasing length of stent as independent predictors of TnT rise following PCI. Periprocedural TnT rise was not associated with adverse events in follow-up examinations (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.65).CONCLUSIONS:\n\nMyocardial necrosis commonly occurred in otherwise successful PCI and was particularly prevalent in the proinflammatory milieu of a recent
myocardial infarction. This response was blunted with statin therapy. However, there was no long-term adverse sequelae of these troponin rises following otherwise uncomplicated PCI.”
“Near miss based analysis has been recently suggested to be more important in the medical field than focusing on adverse events, as in the industrial field To validate the utility of near miss-based analysis in the medical fields, we investigated whether or not predictors of near misses and adverse events were similar among nurses at teaching hospitals Of the 1,860 nurses approached, GSK1838705A 1,737 (93 4%) were included in the final analysis Potential predictors provided for analysis included gender, age, years of nursing experience, frequency of alcohol consumption, work place, ward rotation, frequency of night shifts, sleepiness during work, frequency of feeling unskilled, nurses’ job stressors, working conditions, and depression Variables for multivariate analysis
were determined by bivariable analysis Ordinal logistic analysis showed that predictors of near misses and adverse events were markedly similar Parameters that were significantly related to both near misses and adverse events were years of experience, frequency of night shifts, Internal ward, and time pressure (p<0 05 for all) The present study suggested that there was a negligible difference between choosing near miss- or adverse event-based analysis when identifying possible causes SB202190 in vivo of adverse events in the medical field”
“Background: There is a lack of evidence-based criteria to assist the diagnosis of infection following trauma splenectomy (TS). However, the literature suggests that white blood cell count (WBC) is associated with infection in patients who undergo TS. We sought to find whether there exist key differences in laboratory and clinical parameters that can assist the diagnosis of infection after TS. Methods: We evaluated all consecutive trauma patients who had undergone TS at a Level 1 trauma center from 2005 to 2011 for the development of infection.
The results also could be used for future complementary global, regional, national, and sub GSK1838705A national studies.”
“Objectives: Although pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVC)
with no identified microorganism is treated empirically, the clinical outcome is not well understood. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients with PVC) at a tertiary-care hospital from 2000 through 2012. The study compared clinical features and outcomes of microbiologically confirmed (M-PVC) with clinically diagnosed PVC) (C-PVC). Results: Of 151 patients with PVC, 75 (49.7%) had M-PVO. Compared to patients with M-PVO, patients with C-PVC had fewer underlying medical conditions. In addition, they presented less frequently with fever, high acute-phase reactants levels, and paraspinal abscess. The rate of treatment failure tended to be lower in the C-PVC group [9.2% (7/76) vs. 17.3% (13/75); p = 0.157]. The overall relapse rate was 6.6% and did not differ significantly between groups; notably this rate was higher in patients who received antibiotics for smaller than = 6 weeks [18.8% (3/16)] and smaller than = 8 weeks [12.1% (4/33)]. The independent risk factors for treatment failure were
higher CRP levels [odds ratio (OR) = 1.087; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.025-1.153 p = 0.005] and fever bigger than = 37.8 degrees C (OR = 8.556; 95% CI: 2.273-32.207; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Patients with C-PVC S3I-201 in vivo had less systemic inflammatory response and a more favorable outcome compared to M-PVO. Prolonged antibiotic therapy, for at least 8 weeks, might be required for C-PVC, as well as for M-PVC until better outcomes are assured. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
NSC 136476 phosphors prepared by solid-state diffusion technique and lyoluminescence (LL) as well as mechanoluminescence (ML) studies are reported. Dy- and Tb-activated phosphors show dosimetric characteristics using LL and ML techniques. The energy levels and hence trapping and detrapping of charge carriers in the material can be studied using ML. Li3PO4 phosphor can be used in the dosimetric applications for ionizing radiation. By using the LL technique, the LL characteristics of Li3PO4 may be useful for high radiation doses. We also report a more detailed theoretical understanding of the mechanism of LL and ML. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“This work evaluated the occurrence and genetic structure of Rhodnius nasutus sampled in two sites using morphometry and microsatellites.
2, while in the other case a bony window osteotomy was made in the external wall of the maxillary sinus, in the context of a sinus membrane lift procedure.\n\nThe Piezosurgery (R) device produces specific ultrasound frequency modulation (25-29 kHz), and has been designed to secure increased precision in application to bone surgery. This instrument produces selective sectioning of the check details mineralized bone structures, and causes less intra- and postoperative bleeding.\n\nOne of the advantages of the Piezosurgery (R) device is that it can be used for maxillary sinus lift procedures
in dental implant placement. In this context it considerably lessens the risk of sinus mucosa laceration by preparing the bony window in the external wall of the upper maxilla, and can be used to complete the lifting maneuver.\n\nThe use of ultrasound in application to hard tissues can be regarded as a slow technique compared with the conventional rotary instruments, since it requires special surgical skill and involves a certain learning curve.”
“Objective: To see the various clinical presentations and biochemical profile in adult celiac disease patients of Hyderabad Sindh.\n\nMethods: A total 60 suspected cases of adult celiac disease, both males and females were screened out from liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences hospital and private clinics at Sadar Hyderabad
by non probability purposive sampling during a period from July 2011 to December 2012.Age ranged between 18 to 55 Years. Ispinesib molecular weight A detailed history and clinical examination was done. Patients already on gluten free diet, age < 12years, tuberculosis or cancer of intestine/colon and patients of diabetes and thyroid disorder were excluded, while patients having positive ant tTG (value > 15 iu/rnl detected by ELISA) were included. The biochemical profile including serum albumin, calcium,ferritin, SGPT, Alkaline phosphatase and Haemoglobin were estimated in central Diagnostic laboratory LUMHS by taking 10 cc centrifuged blood Wnt tumor sample. The data was plotted on SPSS 16, mean and percentages were calculated.\n\nResults: All patients were divided in to three groups according to age. The most common group was 1830 years; (mean, 23.5 +/- 5.6) comprised 56.6%. The commonest clinical presentation was diarrhoea in 50%, menstrual irregularity in 21%, walking problems 21%, undue fatigue in 15% and edema in 15%. P values calculated in quantitative variable of males and females. The p value was significant in between serum calcium (p 0.004), haemoglobin (p 0,004), serum ferritin (<0.005) and alkaline phosphatise (<0.005).\n\nConclusion: This study showed that Adult celiac disease was present with entirely different clinical and biochemical profile in patients in this region.
We showed an overall pattern of 8p loss with reduced heterozygosity and reduced gene expression. Amplification was seen in some samples and shown in the cell line JMSU1 to correlate with overexpression of ZNF703, ERLIN2, PROSC, GPR124, and BRF2. Apart from the centromere, no single breakpoint was overrepresented, and we postulate that frequent complex changes without consistent breakpoints reflect the need for alterations of combinations of genes. The region around 2 Mb, which was homozygously deleted in one cell line and includes the gene ARHGEF10 and the micro-RNA hsa-mir-596, is one candidate tumor suppressor gene region. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are closely related to retroviruses
and, as such, are important models for the study of viral integration and target site selection. The transposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe integrates with a strong preference for the promoters of polymerase II (Pol check details II)-transcribed genes. Previous work in vivo with plasmid-based targets revealed that the patterns of insertion were promoter specific and highly reproducible. To CHIR98014 concentration determine which features of promoters are recognized by Tf1, we studied integration in a promoter that has been characterized. The promoter of fbp1 has two upstream activating sequences,
UAS1 and UAS2. We found that integration was targeted to two windows, one 180 nucleotides (nt) upstream and the other 30 to 40 nt downstream of UAS1. A series of deletions in the promoter showed that the integration activities of these two regions functioned autonomously. Integration assays of UAS2 and of a synthetic promoter demonstrated that strong promoter activity alone was not sufficient
to direct integration. The factors that modulate the transcription activities of UAS1 and UAS2 include the activators Atf1p, Pcr1p, and Rst2p as well as the repressors Tup11p, Tup12p, and Pka1p. Selleck Dibutyryl-cAMP Strains lacking each of these proteins revealed that Atf1p alone mediated the sites of integration. These data indicate that Atf1p plays a direct and specific role in targeting integration in the promoter of fbp1.”
“Role of Defibrillation Threshold Testing. Introduction: Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing has been performed to prove functionality of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Over the past years it has become increasingly controversial because of possible morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to determine unsuccessful shock testing and report strategies used to overcome these problems. Methods and Results: A total of 314 patients with a de novo implantation of an ICD and 127 patients receiving a generator exchange were identified retrospectively. All patients underwent defibrillation threshold testing after induction of VF using a low-energy T-wave shock during the intervention, 2 shock tests after de novo implantations, 1 after generator change. A safety margin of 10 J or more was requested. Seven (2.
A validated and consistent survey with 144 items was applied to the four groups before and after educational strategies. Critical reading with its subcomponents: interpretation, judgment and proposal were evaluated with 47, 49 and 48 items,
respectively. The case control studies, cohort studies, diagnostic test and clinical trial designs were evaluated. Nonparametric significance tests were performed to compare the groups and their results. A bias calculation was performed for each group. Results. The highest median was obtained by the three-stage groups (g1 and g2) and so were the medians in interpretation, judgment and proposal. The several research design results were higher in the same groups. Conclusions. An active educational strategy with three check details stages is superior to another with two stages in medical students. It is advisable to perform these activities in goal of better learning in our students.”
“The Critical Chain Scheduling and Buffer Management (CC/BM) methodology, proposed by Goldratt (Critical chain, 1997), introduced the concepts of feeding buffers, project buffers and resource buffers as well as the roadrunner mentality. This last concept, in which activities are started as soon as possible, was introduced in order to speed up projects by taking advantage of predecessors finishing early. Later on, the railway scheduling concept of never starting
activities earlier than planned was introduced as a way to increase the stability Torin 1 clinical trial of the project, typically at the cost of an increase in the expected project makespan. In this paper, we will indicate a realistic situation in which railway scheduling improves both the stability and the expected project makespan over roadrunner scheduling.”
“Nonlinear free vibration analysis of curved double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) embedded in an elastic medium is studied in this study. Nonlinearities considered are due to large deflection of
carbon nanotubes (geometric nonlinearity) and nonlinear interlayer van der Waals forces between inner and outer tubes. The differential quadrature method (DQM) is utilized to discretize the partial differential equations of motion in spatial domain, which resulted in a nonlinear set of algebraic equations of motion. The effect of nonlinearities, different end conditions, initial curvature, and stiffness Fer-1 molecular weight of the surrounding elastic medium, and vibrational modes on the nonlinear free vibration of DWCNTs is studied. Results show that it is possible to detect different vibration modes occurring at a single vibration frequency when CNTs vibrate in the out-of-phase vibration mode. Moreover, it is observed that boundary conditions have significant effect on the nonlinear natural frequencies of the DWCNT including multiple solutions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Complementary DNA (cDNA) and genomic DNA, including flanking regions of the chitinase gene (Fcchi-3) of Fenneropenaeus chinensis, were cloned and sequenced. Fcchi-3 was found to have 92.