24 In most studies, response occurred within 1 month of augmentation. After such treatment, which should be initiated only after at least 3 months of maximally tolerated therapy of an SSRI, about one third of treatment-refractory OCD patients show a clinically meaningful amelioration. In several meta-analyses positive acute effects of antipsychotic augmentation were demonstrated.40-42 Despite their recommendation,
the WFSBP guideline24 mentions that evidence for the efficacy of quetiapine and olanzapine was still Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical inconclusive according to respective systematic review.40 Further meta-analyses about quetiapine showed equivocal results.43,44 A recent double-blind augmentation study with quetiapine in severe OCD patients failed to show an effect of quetiapine.45 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical In contrast, superior effects of quetiapine versus ziprasidone as an adjunct to SSRI were found in treatment-resistant OCD patients in a retrospective study.46 Interestingly, (primary!) addition of quetiapine to citalopram was more effective than citalopram alone in reducing OCD symptoms in a large Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical double-blind study in treatment-naïve or medication-free OCD patients,47 although extrapolation of these results to augmentation studies sensu stricto may be problematic. Regarding olanzapine, a single-blind study comparing risperidone versus olanzapine augmentation of SSRIs showed positive responses without differences between the two treatment groups.48
The long-term effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics in the augmentation of SSRIs has so far not sufficiently been studied and was not supported in a trial using olanzapine, quetiapine, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and risperidone.49 Several further atypical neuroleptics are promising new candidates for augmentation therapies of serotonin reuptake inhibitors according to various case reports and open studies. In a 12-week,
open-label, flexible-dose trial of aripiprazole, significant improvement of OCD symptoms was demonstrated.50 Some respective case reports with aripiprazole had been published before.51 Even as monotherapy, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a case series suggests that aripiprazole holds promise for treating OCD.52 Also for amisulpride augmentation, an open study has shown promising results.53 Augmentation with perospirone resulted in beneficial until effects in a case report.54 Augmentation with or switch to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy Preliminary evidence supports the usefulness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as a nonpharmacological augmentation treatment. In a randomized controlled trial in patients who were on a therapeutic dose of SSRI for at least 12 weeks, and continued to display clinically significant OCD symptoms, the augmentative effect of exposure and ritual prevention versus stress management training was compared; after 8 weeks significantly more patients with exposure and response prevention showed a decrease of symptom LY3009104 concentration severity of at least 25% and achieved minimal symptoms.