34, df = 1, P

= 0 124) After the 12 months follow-up, 11

34, df = 1, P

= 0.124). After the 12 months follow-up, 11 (28.2%) participants dropped out in the pharmacotherapy group and 9 (25.0%) dropped out in the PCBT group. Three (7.9%) participants dropped out of the PCCT (Fisher’s exact test, P < 0.05). Using LOCF to examine all participants for ITT analysis; results were similar to those described above for the severity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical changes of OCD symptoms and social–occupational function in the three groups. Discussion Our findings demonstrate that PCCT can be used to treat most OCD symptoms with better compliance, higher response and remission rates, and reduced OCD symptom severity quickly, and with improved social–occupational function in OCD patients. The insight of OCD patients may be a predictor of the outcome of PCCT. Our study also indicates that PCCT takes significantly

less time to relieve OCD symptoms. Previous data showed that up to 12 weeks of Panobinostat cell line treatment were required to see Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a response in OCD symptoms to medication or CBT, and even CBT combined with pharmacotherapy (Salkovskis 1999; Simpson et al. 2008). Several factors might be responsible for why PCCT treats OCD quickly, although none are supported with direct evidence. First, CCT may play a pivotal role in PCCT because response to pharmacotherapy is usually delayed and takes up to 8–12 weeks (Greist et al. 1995; Math and Janardhan Reddy 2007). Our data indicate that the response to PCCT is significantly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical shorter (<1 month) than pharmacotherapy only. Second, CCT may set a proper therapeutic target order (from fear to intrusive thoughts Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and then to compulsions). Third, coping skills may be proper strategies in CCT for OCD treatment. Fourth, according to the model of Goldapple

and colleagues (Goldapple et al. 2004), four important components can be identified: intrusive thoughts, false appraisal, fear of negative events, and compulsions (Fig. 1). Individuals Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with false appraisal tend to believe intrusive thoughts are related to negative events and feel fear. Fear of negative events motivates an individual’s neutralizing behavior (compulsions). Therefore, false appraisal and fear of negative events play important roles in the onset of OCD and can be the main targets of CCT. The intrusive thoughts themselves are Dipeptidyl peptidase indicators of negative events for individuals. In CCT, compulsions will be eliminated after the intrusive thoughts are properly coped with as stressors and are isolated from negative events. Also, the compulsions can make intrusive thoughts become more frequent, repetitive and disturbing (Clark 2005). One goal of CCT is to break down the reinforcing relationships between intrusive thoughts, negative events, and compulsions, which is achieved by using appraisal-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, instead of ERP of CBT. PCBT was less efficacious than PCCT, but its response rate (53%–68%) is higher than pharmacotherapy alone (40%–51%).

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