4. For instance, the reaction center of the purple bacterium Rb. sphaeroides has three distinct absorption bands assigned to the Qy bands of the primary bacteriochlorophylls (BChls), accessory BChls, and bacteriopheophytins

(Bpheos), named the P, B, and H bands. However, the excitonically coupled states contain the properties of electronic states from different molecules, and they are correlated to some extent. The notations P, B and H denote only the major contributing GDC-0068 cost molecules to each state. The recently developed 2C3PEPS method is suitable for investigating Selleckchem Evofosfamide such correlated electronic states when the states are of different energies. The more correlation between

the states, the larger the peak shift signal generated, as an extended concept of 1C3PEPS. In practice, the 2C3PEPS experiment is performed using one wavelength for the first two laser pulses and a different wavelength for the last pulse in a setup similar to that in Fig. 2. If the first two pulses are at a higher energy than the last one, the experiment is called “downhill” and if lower, it is called “uphill.” In particular, 2C3PEPS enables us to directly determine the coupling constant, J, between the two coupled states, i.e., the off-diagonal Staurosporine clinical trial elements of the Hamiltonian, without prior knowledge about the site energies of the pigments in the protein matrix. That is, it allows researchers to differentiate between broadening sources (3) and (4) described in the Introduction. J is related to the mixing angle (θ) by : $$ \tan (2\theta ) = \fracJ\varepsilon_a – \varepsilon_b , $$where ε a and ε b are the monomer energies (or site energies in protein matrix) of molecules a and b, respectively. The mixing angle can be obtained from the experimental mixing coefficient, \( C_\mu \nu \): $$ C_\mu \nu = 2\sin^2 \theta \cos^2 \theta \approx \frac\tau^_* _\mu \nu

(T)\tau^*_\mu \nu (T) + \frac12\kappa \left( \tau_\mu (T) + \tau_\nu (T)\kappa^3 \right), $$where \( \kappa = \tau^*_\mu \nu (T)/\tau^*_\nu \mu (T) \) (Mancal and Fleming 2004). As can be seen in the notation of Fig. 4, \( \tau^*_\mu (T)\;\textand\;\tau^*_\nu #randurls[1 (T) \) represent the 1C3PEPS values for upper and lower excitonic states, respectively, and \( \tau^*_\mu \nu (T)\;\textand\;\tau^*_\nu \mu (T) \) represent uphill and downhill 2C3PEPS, respectively. The value of J can be determined using the following equation based on the difference in energy between the two observed exciton states: $$ E_\mu – E_\nu = 2J\sqrt 1 + \left( \frac1\tan (2\theta ) \right)^2 . $$ Fig. 4 Energy diagram for an excitonically coupled system.