6% compared to 3 5 and 3 8 in 14 and 90 day old conidia, respecti

6% compared to 3.5 and 3.8 in 14 and 90 day old conidia, respectively).

Figure 7 Trehalose content in mutant and wild-type conidia of different age. The numbers GF120918 solubility dmso to the right represent how many days the colony had grown on AMM plates before conidia were harvested and analysed. Error bars show standard error of the mean. At all time points, conidia from all mutant strains contained significantly less trehalose compared to wild-type conidia (again, with the exception of ΔtpsB-ΔtppC 28 days). When comparing the deletion GSK2118436 cost mutants to the other control strain, pyrG+, significantly lower levels of trehalose were detected in strains ΔtpsA, ΔtppA and ΔtppB. After 14 days of maturation the conidial trehalose level was 50% lower in ΔtpsA compared to pyrG+, and 73 and 60% lower in ΔtppA and ΔtppB, respectively. For ΔtpsA and ΔtppA, the reduction was significant at all time points tested, and for ΔtppB, the difference was significant in 14, 28 and 90 day old conidia but not after 5 days. Among the deletion mutants with wild-type like phenotypes, i.e. when excluding ΔtppA, ΔtppB had the lowest overall trehalose content. After 14 days of incubation, the trehalose level was 1.7% of conidial dry weight compared to 5.1 and 4.1% in wild-type N402 and pyrG+, ACP-196 nmr respectively. Although the conidial trehalose content

was consistently lower in ΔtppA, the extremely low number of spores produced made this strain unsuitable for studies on conidial survival. Therefore, ΔtppB was, due to its wild-type morphology, selected for additional studies to reveal whether or not a normal internal trehalose level has any impact on stress survival and growth. Confirmation and further characterization of ΔtppB Before subjecting the tppB deletion mutant to stress, a few confirmatory experiments were performed

to ensure that the lowered trehalose Decitabine cost content was a consequence of the deleted gene: A new deletion mutant of tppB, ΔtppB2, was generated using MA169.4 as parent strain, and on a selected transformant the ΔkusA gene was restored using acetamide. Analysis of trehalose content in 14 day old conidia from this new mutant showed that they were as low as in ΔtppB (1.54 ± 0.1% of conidia dry weight in ΔtppB2 versus 1.72 ± 0.5% in ΔtppB). Moreover, the deletions mutants were complemented by transformation of an autonomously replicating plasmid carrying the gene for hygromycin resistance as well as an intact copy of the tppB gene. Putative transformants were selected on hygromycin plates. The presence of the construct was confirmed using PCR and plasmid rescue (data not shown). In a previous study we discovered that, when using this methodology, only a fraction of conidia carry the plasmid [28]. This was also valid for tppB + conidia, where only a few percent germinated on hygromycin media (data not shown).

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