“Introduction Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a widespread toxicant linked to approximately 4,000 cancer deaths per year in the US (United States, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General 2006). ETS contains over 4,000 chemicals and 60 known carcinogens (IARC Working Group 2004). Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are a group of carcinogens found in ETS. When inhaled, Doramapimod research buy these compounds are activated by phase I enzymes and can bind to DNA bases to form bulky products known as DNA adducts. DNA adducts can lead to mutations, which may disrupt normal cellular function and initiate carcinogenesis. Among active smokers,
https://www.selleckchem.com/products/verubecestat.html individuals with higher adduct levels have an increased risk of developing lung cancer (Whyatt et al. 2000; Tang et al. 2001; Veglia et al. 2003). In addition, individuals who began smoking earlier in life have a higher disease rate; this is independent of whether they continue to smoke or stop smoking (Wiencke et al. 1999). Among adults who have never smoked, DNA adduct levels
are associated strongly with the development of lung cancer (Peluso et al. 2005). Children appear particularly susceptible to the genotoxic effects of ETS. Studies of mother–infant dyads have found higher DNA adduct levels in the newborns compared to the mothers despite a lower estimated exposure to ETS (Whyatt et al. 2001; Perera et selleck al. 2004). As with many diseases, tobacco-related disorders are not equally distributed in humans. Despite lower levels of tobacco use, African American smokers suffer higher rates of lung cancer compared with White smokers (United States Department of Heath and Human Services 1998; Haiman et al. 2006). Even among lifetime non-smokers, African American women have a significantly higher lung cancer incidence than White women (Thun et al. 2006, 2008). These studies raise questions as to whether certain populations are more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of tobacco or sustain exposures in excess of other groups. Weiserbs et al. reported a twofold higher level of DNA adducts among African Americans compared to White Americans and Latino Americans (Weiserbs et al. 2003). Among smokers, African
Americans have higher cotinine levels (nicotine metabolite) than Whites (Caraballo Resminostat et al. 1998; Benowitz et al. 1999, 2004; Ahijevych et al. 2002). There are also striking racial differences in cotinine among ETS-exposed children. In previous work, we demonstrated that African American children had higher levels of cotinine in their serum and hair than White children, despite similar levels of ETS exposure (Wilson et al. 2005, 2007). However, a few studies have tested for racial differences in DNA adducts among children adjusting carefully for ETS exposure. The factors that result in higher levels of ETS exposure within families are complex and not completely understood. Housing size and ventilation are known to impact children’s exposure to ETS, as measured by serum cotinine (Henschen et al.