9%) had chronic dissection, 68 patients (33 0%) had atherosclerot

9%) had chronic dissection, 68 patients (33.0%) had atherosclerotic aneurysms, and 39 patients (18.9%) had degenerative disease. Ninety-one patients (44.2%) had undergone previous cardiac surgery.

Results: An elephant trunk was placed in 190

patients (92.2%) and completed in 101 patients (53.1%), with an interval of less than 365 days between stages in 94 of 101 patients. Hospital mortality was 6.8% (14/206). Adverse outcome (death/stroke within the first year postoperatively) occurred in 27.7% of patients (57/206; 50 deaths/7 strokes). Among 152 1-year survivors, the annual rates of transient ischemic attack and stroke were 0.85% and 1.1%, respectively. At 6 years, 75% of patients were still alive, compared EPZ5676 datasheet with 92% in a matched New York State control population (P < .001). Follow-up computed tomography scans (189 studies NSC23766 nmr in 176/206

patients [85.4%]) revealed 100% patency of the trifurcated graft limbs at a mean of 2.3 years.

Conclusions: Aortic arch replacement using a trifurcated graft is highly durable, with excellent patency in the branch grafts, and is associated with a low incidence of cerebral embolization. However, the long-term outcome in these patients is compromised by extensive comorbidities. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2010;140:S71-6)”
“Imaging studies of serotonin transporter binding or tryptophan retention in autistic patients suggest that the brain serotonin system is decreased. However, treatment with drugs which increase serotonin (5-HT) levels, specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly produce a worsening of

the symptoms. In this study we examined 5-HT axons that were immunoreactive to a serotonin transporter (5-HTT) antibody in a number of postmortem brains from autistic patients and controls with no known diagnosis who ranged in age from 2 to 29 years. Fine, highly branched, and thick straight fibers were found in forebrain pathways (e.g. medial AG-120 in vivo forebrain bundle, stria terminalis and ansa lenticularis). Many immunoreactive varicose fine fibers were seen in target areas (e.g. globus pallidus, amygdala and temporal cortex). Morphometric analysis of the stained axons at all ages studied indicated that the number of serotonin axons was increased in both pathways and terminal regions in cortex from autism donors. Our findings provide morphological evidence to warrant caution when using serotonin enhancing drugs (e.g. SSRIs and receptor agonist) to treat autistic children.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Trends in Neuropharmacology: In Memory of Erminio Costa’. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Studies in the area of human brain development are critical as research on neurological and psychiatric disorders has advanced, revealing the origins of pathophysiology to be in the earliest developmental stages.

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