A general, inexpensive, and simple method to configure assays for polymerase and reverse transcriptases was reported over 10 years ago by Seville et al. (1996). The authors used the exquisite specificity of Pico Green towards double-stranded find more DNA and DNA–RNA hybrids where binding of the dye to the strands leads to a dramatically enhanced fluorescence, (λex=480 nm, λem=520 nm).
Thus, Pico Green detects the presence of DNA–DNA or DNA–RNA double-stranded products but remains non-fluorescent in the presence of single-stranded substrate and primer(s). The assay is performed as an end-point read, after the addition of Pico Green solution containing EDTA to stop the reaction (S:B>10-fold). The same publication, exhibited measurement of polymerization
in a kinetic mode. Another Sunitinib cost approach uses labeled oligonucleotides which form a hairpin structure bringing the 5׳ and 3׳ ends of the oligonucleotide together which results in either fluorescent quenching or a FRET signal. This so called “molecular beacon” approach ( Figure 7) has been used to measure DNA ligase and polymerase activity ( Liu et al., 2005). One of the most important enzymes in drug discovery efforts is the class of oxidoreductases known as the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family (most of which have been classified as unspecific monooxygenases, (EC 188.8.131.52)). Two cell-free HTS assay systems are available for this class of enzymes (Zlokarnik et al., 2005). One system employs fluorescence-based detection of pro-fluorescent substrates for specific CYP isoforms (Crespi et al., 2002) and the other employs pro-luminescent
substrates for CYPs using derivatives of d-luciferin that prevent its recognition by firefly luciferase (Sobel et al., 2007). In the luminescent assay the CYPs convert a pro-luciferin substrate to d-luciferin allowing bioluminescent detection through firefly luciferase Farnesyltransferase (Cali et al., 2006; Auld et al., 2013). The kinetic values of the substrates used in both systems have been well characterized, allowing for estimation of Ki values. Consideration of CYP substrate selectivity is an essential issue if the source of enzyme is from liver microsomes ( Foti and Wahlstrom, 2008). While both systems mentioned above measure product formation, the luminescent system detects product through coupling to luciferase and must be performed as an endpoint assay. A disadvantage of the fluorescent system is that the compound fluorescence may interfere, however the assay can be performed kinetically which can minimize such interferences. A similar luminescent based system for monoamine oxidase has also been described ( Zhou et al., 2006). For other families of oxidoreductases relatively few choices for HTS assays exist.