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“Using semiserial sections from 19 human fetuses of 830 weeks gestation, we examined the topohistology of the upper abdominal lymphatics and compared it with that of the lower abdominal and pelvic lymphatics. The upper abdominal lymphatics were characterized Pexidartinib nmr by an intimate relationship with the peritoneal lining, a common mesentery for the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Lymphatic connections from the upper abdominal viscera to the paraaortic and paracaval areas
followed two routes: (1) from the intestinal mesentery, along the peritoneum on the left aspect of the proximal SMA, via the chain of lymph follicles (LFs) lying along the retropancreatic fusion fascia, to drain into the LFs around the left renal vein; (2) from sites along the peritoneum on the posterior wall of the omental bursa, via the root of the hepatoduodenal ligament, to drain into LFs around the vena cava. The development of these two posterior drainage routes seemed to be promoted by the peritoneum or a peritoneal remnant (i.e., fusion fascia) attaching to the great vessels, and
inhibited or impeded by the developing nerves and diaphragm. No paraaortic, paracaval, or pelvic LFs lay along the peritoneum. PXD101 cost The pelvic LFs were usually located along the bundle of lymphatic vessels originating from the femoral canal. Anat Rec, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Melatonin is a remarkable molecule with diverse physiological functions. Some of its effects are mediated by receptors while other, like cytoprotection, seem to depend on direct and indirect scavenging of free radicals not involving receptors. Among melatonin’s many effects, its antinociceptive actions have attracted attention. When given orally, intraperitoneally, locally, intrathecally or through intracerebroventricular routes, melatonin exerts antinociceptive and antiallodynic actions in a variety of animal
models. These effects have been demonstrated in animal models of acute pain like the tail-flick test, formalin test or endotoxin-induced hyperalgesia as well as in models of neuropathic pain like nerve ligation. Glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and particularly, opioid neurotransmission have been demonstrated to BMN 673 be involved in melatonin’s analgesia. Results using melatonin receptor antagonists support the participation of melatonin receptors in melatonin’s analgesia. However, discrepancies between the affinity of the receptors and the very high doses of melatonin needed to cause effects in vivo raise doubts about the uniqueness of that physiopathological interpretation. Indeed, melatonin could play a role in pain through several alternative mechanisms including free radicals scavenging or nitric oxide synthase inhibition. The use of melatonin analogs like the MT(1) /MT(2) agonist ramelteon, which lacks free radical scavenging activity, could be useful to unravel the mechanism of action of melatonin in analgesia.