Although these agents are thyroid disruptors, it is not clear whe

Although these agents are thyroid disruptors, it is not clear whether this mechanism alone accounts for the adverse effects. We evaluated the impact of 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE99) on PC12 cells undergoing neurodifferentiation, contrasting the effects with chlorpyrifos, a known developmental neurotoxicant. BDE99 elicited decrements in the number of cells, evidenced by a reduction in DNA levels, to a lesser extent than did chlorpyrifos. This did not reflect cytotoxicity from oxidative stress, since cell enlargement, monitored by the total protein/DNA ratio, was not only unimpaired by BDE99, but was actually enhanced. Importantly,

BDE99 impaired neurodifferentiation into both the dopamine and acetylcholine check details neurotransmitter phenotypes. The cholinergic phenotype was affected to a greater selleck chemicals llc extent, so that neurotransmitter fate was diverted away from acetylcholine and toward dopamine. Chlorpyrifos produced the same imbalance, but through a different underlying mechanism, promoting dopaminergic development at the expense of cholinergic development. In our earlier work, we did not find these effects with BDE47, a BDE that has greater endocrine disrupting and cytotoxic effects than BDE99. Thus, our results point to interference with neurodifferentiation by specific BDE congeners, distinct

from cytotoxic or endocrine

mechanisms. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Advances in the treatment of acute leukemia have resulted in significantly improved remission rates, although disease relapse poses a significant risk. By utilizing sensitive, non-invasive imaging guidance, detection of early leukemic infiltration and the extent of residual tumor burden after targeted therapy can be expedited, leading to more efficient treatment planning. We demonstrated marked survival benefit and therapeutic efficacy of a new-generation vascular disrupting agent, combretastatin-A1-diphosphate (OXi4503), using reporter gene-imaging technologies Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor and mice systemically administered luc + and GFP + human leukemic cells (LCs). Before treatment, homing of double-transduced cells was serially monitored and whole-body cellular distributions were mapped using bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Imaging findings strongly correlated with quantitative GFP expression levels in solid organs/tissues, suggesting that the measured BLI signal provides a highly sensitive and reliable biomarker of tumor tissue burden in systemic leukemic models. Such optical technologies can thereby serve as robust non-invasive imaging tools for preclinical drug discovery and for rapidly screening promising therapeutic agents to establish potency, treatment efficacy and survival advantage.

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