Although VEP (i.e. vaccine efficacy based on the prevalence ratio) appears the most clear-cut endpoint, efficacy estimates
based directly on the prevalence ratio may be difficult to interpret and may not be comparable across different studies. In particular, VEP may be biased towards zero as an estimate of the true efficacy against susceptibility to acquisition (Section 3; for specific examples, see ). Moreover, the aggregate VEP efficacy is not a simple function of the serotype-specific VEP efficacies. Therefore, vaccine efficacy based on a prevalence ratio is not recommended as a primary Selleckchem INCB018424 vaccine efficacy parameter. It should however be noted that this does not preclude the use of prevalence-based data in estimating VETor VEacq, as explained above. This study was supported as a part of the research of the PneumoCarr Consortium funded by a grant (37875) from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation through the Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative. Conflicts of interest KA: No conflicts of interest. HRK: No conflicts of interest. DG: DG’s laboratory performs contract and or collaborative research for/with Pfizer, Glaxosmithkline, Merck, Novartis and Sanofi Pasteur. DG has received travel or honorarium support for participation in external expert committees
for Merck, Sanofi Pasteur, Pfizer and Glaxosmithkline. HN has served on pneumococcal vaccination external expert committees convened by GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, and Sanofi Pasteur. She works in a department which holds a major research grant from GlaxoSmithKline on phase IV evaluation of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. KOB: Research grant support selleck products from Pfizer, and GlaxoSmithKline and has served on pneumococcal
external expert committees convened by Merck, Aventis-Pasteur, and GlaxoSmithKline. CS received the Robert Austrian award funded by Pfizer. BS: No conflicts of interest. AT: No conflicts of interest. HK: No conflicts of interest. “
“Evaluation of vaccine efficacy for protection against colonisation (VEcol) mafosfamide with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacterial pathogens is often based on a cross-sectional study design, in which only one nasopharyngeal sample is obtained per study subject. The accompanying article in this volume  summarises the key ingredients of VEcol estimation from such cross-sectional data, including the choice of vaccine efficacy parameter and the appropriate classification of samples according to vaccine- and non-vaccine-type colonisation. VEcol is used as an umbrella concept for a number of different vaccine efficacy parameters. The parameters of most interest are vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage (VEacq), vaccine efficacy against duration of carriage (VEdur), and the combined efficacy against acquisition and duration (VET; cf. Table 1 and Fig. 1 in ). In practice, a number of other questions need to be answered in the design phase of a study prior to data collection.