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App Environ Microbiol 2010,76(5):1669–1673.CrossRef 64. Keevil CW: Continuous culture models to study pathogens Capmatinib mw in biofilms. Method Enzymol 2001, 337:104–122.CrossRef 65. Keevil CW: Rapid detection of biofilms and adherent pathogens using scanning confocal laser microscopy and episcopic differential interference contrast microscopy. Water Sci Technol 2003,47(5):105–116.PubMed

66. Guimarães N, Azevedo NF, Figueiredo C, Keevil CW, Vieira MJ: Development and application of a novel peptide nucleic acid probe for the specific detection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2007,45(9):3089–3094.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions MSG participated in the experimental design, carried out all experimental

work and drafted the manuscript. NFA, SAW, MJV and CWK participated in the design of the study and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Infectious diseases have devastating ecological and economical impacts on fish, amphibian and reptile populations worldwide (reviewed in [1]). Despite those effects, the precise XMU-MP-1 solubility dmso pathogenesis of infectious diseases of ectotherm vertebrates and the interaction with the immune system of their respective hosts are mostly poorly understood. Recently, marked progress has been made in the characterization of the immune system of lower vertebrates. This has been facilitated by concentrated focus on the cloning of pathogen-induced genes and by accumulating sequence data from genome and expressed sequence tag (EST) projects. Similarly, increased information about the genomes of pathogens of lower vertebrates is becoming available. However, there are still large gaps in our knowledge, 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase especially concerning the interaction of ectothermic pathogens with the host immune system. Ranaviruses, which constitute a genus within the family Iridoviridae, are important pathogens of ectotherms

and have been associated with massive die-offs of both wild and farmed populations of fish, frogs and salamanders in diverse areas of the world [2–5]. Ranaviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses with genomes ranging from 105 to 140 kb. Currently the genomes of seven ranaviruses have been sequenced: Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV, accession no. NC_005832[6]); Frog virus 3 (FV3, accession no. NC_005946[7]); Tiger frog virus (TFV, accession no. AF389451 [8]); Grouper iridovirus (GIV,accession no. Angiogenesis inhibitor AY666015 [9]; Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV, accession no. NC_006549[10]); Soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV, accession no. EU627010 [11]); and Epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV, accession no. FJ433873 [12]). Phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two major clades among ranaviruses, one that included GIV and SGIV, and another comprised of ATV, EHNV, FV3, STIV and TFV. Interestingly, the latter clade could be further subdivided with ATV and EHNV in one subclade, and FV3, STIV and TFV in the other.

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