We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the

We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest, a condition that accounts for a substantial proportion of cardiovascular-related deaths, in seven large North American urban populations.\n\nMethods: Using a population-based registry, we collected data on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occurring at home or at a residential institution from Apr. 1, 2006, to Mar. 31, 2007. We limited the analysis to cardiac arrests in seven metropolitan areas in the United States (Dallas, Texas; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania;

Portland, Oregon; and Seattle-King County, Washington) and Canada (Ottawa and Toronto, Ontario; and Vancouver, British Columbia). Each incident was linked to a census tract; tracts were classified into quartiles of median household income.\n\nResults: A total of 9235 sudden cardiac arrests were included in the analysis. For all check details sites combined, the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest in the lowest socioeconomic quartile was nearly double that in the highest quartile (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-2.0). This disparity was greater among people less than 65 years old (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5-3.0) than among those 65 or older (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). After adjustment for study site and for population age structure of each census

tract, the disparity across socio economic quartiles for all ages combined was greater in the United States (IRR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.2)

than in Canada (IRR Blasticidin S solubility dmso 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0) (p < 0.001 for interaction).\n\nInterpretation: The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest at home or at a residential institution was higher in poorer neighbourhoods of the US and Canadian sites studied, DMXAA concentration although the association was attenuated in Canada. The disparity across socioeconomic quartiles was greatest among people younger than 65. The association be tween socio economic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest merits consideration in the development of strategies to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest, and possibly to identify opportunities for prevention.”
“Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 30 degrees C) protects the brain from hypoxic injury. However, TH may potentiate the occurrence of lethal ventricular fibrillation (VF), although the mechanism remains unclear. The present study explored the hypothesis that TH enhances wavebreaks during VF and Si pacing, facilitates pacing-induced spatially discordant alternans (SDA), and increases the vulnerability of pacing-induced VF\n\nMethods and Results: Using an optical mapping system, epicardial activations of VF were studied in 7 Langendorff-perfused isolated rabbit hearts at baseline (37 degrees C), TH (30 degrees C), and rewarming (37 degrees C). Action potential duration (APD)/conduction velocity (CV) restitution and APD alternans (n=6 hearts) were determined by S1 pacing at these 3 stages.

The relative weights and the scores from the NRS were used to com

The relative weights and the scores from the NRS were used to compute the PACADI score (range 0 to 10). The patients also completed Edmonton Symptom Assessment

System (ESAS) and EQ-5D.\n\nDimensions reported by more than 20 % of the patients were included in the PACADI score (relative weights in parenthesis): pain/discomfort (0.16), fatigue (0.16), anxiety (0.15), bowel/digestive Dactolisib ic50 problems (0.14), loss of appetite (0.13), dry mouth (0.11), itchiness (0.08), and nausea (0.07). The PACADI score in the 80 PC patients had a mean (SD) value of 3.26 (2.06) (95 % CI 2.80, 3.71), was moderately to strongly correlated to ESAS sense of well-being (r = 0.69) and EQ-5D (r = -0.52), and discriminated significantly between patients with and without PC.\n\nThe PACADI score is a new eight-item, patient-derived, disease-specific measure. Preliminary validation regarding construct validity and discrimination encourages further validation in independent patient samples.”
“Background: We have recently shown that intranasal administration of mouse [D-Leu-4]-OB3 reconstituted in Intravail (R) to male Swiss Webster mice resulted in significantly higher bioavailability than commonly used injections methods of delivery. The absorption pro. le associated with intranasal

delivery of mouse [D-Leu-4]-OB3 showed an early peak representing absorption across the nasal mucosa, and a later peak suggesting BI-2536 a gastrointestinal site of uptake.\n\nAim and Methods: In the present study, we examined the effects of orally administered (by gavage) mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 on energy balance, glycaemic control and serum osteocalcin levels

in male C57BL/6J wild-type and ob/ob mice allowed food and water ad libitum or calorie restricted by 40% of normal intake.\n\nResults: In wild-type mice fed ad libitum, oral delivery of mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 reduced body weight gain, food intake and serum glucose, by 4.4, 6.8 and 28.2% respectively. Serum osteocalcin levels and water intake were essentially learn more the same in control and treated wild-type mice. In ob/ob mice fed ad libitum, mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 reduced body weight gain, food intake, water intake and serum glucose by 11.6, 16.5, 22.4 and 24.4% respectively. Serum osteocalcin in ob/ob mice treated with mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 was elevated by 62% over controls. Calorie restriction alone caused significant weight loss in both wild-type (9.0%) and ob/ob (4.8%) mice, and mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 did not further enhance this weight loss. As expected, serum glucose levels in wild-type and ob/ob mice were significantly reduced by calorie restriction alone. Mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 further reduced serum glucose in wild-type mice and normalized levels in ob/ob mice. Calorie restriction alone reduced serum osteocalcin levels by 44.2% in wild-type mice and by 19.1% in ob/ob mice. Mouse [d-Leu-4]-OB3 prevented this decrease in groups of mice.


“A statistical analysis and computational algorithm for co


“A statistical analysis and computational algorithm for comparing pairs of tool marks via profilometry data is described. Empirical validation of the method is established through experiments based on tool marks made at selected fixed angles from 50 sequentially manufactured screwdriver tips. Results

obtained from three different comparison scenarios are presented and are in agreement with experiential knowledge Dactolisib inhibitor possessed by practicing examiners. Further comparisons between scores produced by the algorithm and visual assessments of the same tool mark pairs by professional tool mark examiners in a blind study in general show good agreement between the algorithm and human experts. In specific instances where the algorithm had difficulty in assessing a particular comparison pair, results obtained during the collaborative study with professional examiners suggest ways in which algorithm S63845 performance may be improved. It is concluded that the addition of contextual information

when inputting data into the algorithm should result in better performance.”
“Ascorbate (AsA) is an important antioxidant and an enzyme cofactor involved in various metabolic pathways. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen (ES)-inducible transient expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the d-mannose/l-galactose (d-Man/l-Gal) pathway for plant AsA biosynthesis on AsA levels under light and dark conditions. No significant difference was observed in AsA levels between Arabidopsis plants transiently expressing phosphomannose isomerase (PMI1), GDP-d-Man pyrophosphorylase (GMP/VTC1), GDP-Man-3 ‘,5 ‘-epimerase (GME), and l-Gal 1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP/VTC4), but AsA levels in the plants transiently expressing GDP-l-Gal phosphorylase (GGP/VTC2) CP-456773 cost were 2.5-fold higher than those in control plants 7 d after ES treatment. The increase in AsA levels under continuous light conditions and the decrease

in AsA levels under dark conditions were enhanced and suppressed, respectively, in the ES-treated plants. These results suggest that GGP/VTC2 acts as a rate-limiting step regulating AsA biosynthesis in response to light and dark conditions.”
“Purpose: To report a case of delayed spontaneous Descemet membrane (DM) tear after big-bubble Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK). Methods: Uneventful big-bubble DALK was performed on a 29-year-old patient with advanced keratoconus. No injury to DM was noted intraoperatively and in the first postoperative week. On examination after 1 month, the patient presented with tear and partial detachment of Descemet membrane (DMD). Results: Circumscribed eccentric stromal edema, but not DMD, partially resolved after a 3-month observational period.

However,

the normative core features for patient involvem

However,

the normative core features for patient involvement underlying the model prove problematic due to: (i) properties of complex psychiatric genomics research; (ii) the entanglement check details of subjectivity and basic psychiatric science; (iii) universal notions of citizenship and difficulties of delineating the patient in psychiatric genomics research.\n\nConclusion Interaction and dialogue among scientists, patients and family members are possible in fundamental genomics research. The best approach for involvement would seem to be based on the creation of common ground and an evolving dialogue, which the guidelines of the Dialogue Model can provide. The challenge here will be to create also a dialogue on the normative anchor points of the dialogue process and to identify and monitor power

relations inherent in these (tangible) dialogues.”
“The first committed steps of steroid/hopanoid pathways involve squalene synthase (SQS). Here, we report the Escherichia coli production of diaponeurosporene and diapolycopene, yellow C-30 carotenoid pigments, by expressing human SQS and Staphylococcus aureus dehydrosqualene (C-30 carotenoid) desaturase (CrtN). We suggest www.selleckchem.com/products/ly333531.html that the carotenoid pigments are synthesized mainly via the desaturation of squalene rather than the direct synthesis of dehydrosqualene through the non-reductive condensation of prenyl diphosphate precursors, indicating the possible existence of a “squalene route” and a “lycopersene route”

for C-30 and C-40 carotenoids, respectively. Additionally, this finding yields a new method of colorimetric screening for the cellular activity of squalene synthases, which are major targets for cholesterol-lowering drugs. (C) 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Aim : To establish the frequency, associations and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in hospital population of South India. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional hospital based study, 3549 subjects (2090 men and 1459 women) above 45 years of age were screened randomly for AMD. Participants underwent ocular evaluation and were interviewed for lifestyle variables and dietary intake of carotenoids P005091 by structured food frequency questionnaire. AMD was defined according to the international classifications and grading system. Results : Either form of AMD was detected in 77 (2.2%) participants. Of which, early and late AMD was present in 63 (1.8%) and 14 (0.4%) subjects, respectively. Binary logistic analysis showed that the incidence of AMD was significantly higher with increasing age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.22) and diabetes (OR 3.97; 95% CI 2.11-7.46). However, AMD was significant among heavy cigarette smokers (OR 5.58; 95% CI 0.88-7.51) and alcoholics (OR 4.85; 95% CI 2.45-12.22). Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin (L/Z) and -carotene intake were associated (P smaller than 0.

The combined administration of baicalin and geniposide significan

The combined administration of baicalin and geniposide significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions, and modulated the phenotype of dendritic cells in bone marrow and atherosclerotic plaque. Geniposide lowered both plasma lipid levels and DC numbers, while baicalin administered either alone or in combination with geniposide did not decrease plasma lipids. Our results suggest that baicalin and geniposide may have immune-regulatory effects and prevent the formation of atherosclerotic lesions by decreasing the DC numbers, and inhibit DC

maturation in bone marrow and infiltration Fer-1 into lesions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Recent reports indicated high miltefosine treatment failure rates for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) on the Indian subcontinent. To further explore the pharmacological factors associated with these treatment failures, a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study was performed to examine the relationship

between miltefosine drug exposure and treatment failure in a cohort of Nepalese patients with VL. Methods. Miltefosine steady-state blood concentrations at the end of treatment were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling and a logistic regression model.

Individual estimates of miltefosine exposure were explored for their relationship with treatment failure. Results. The overall probability of treatment failure Ro-3306 in vivo was 21%. The time that the blood concentration was bigger than 10 times the half maximal effective concentration of miltefosine (median, 30.2 days) was significantly associated with treatment failure: each 1-day decrease in miltefosine exposure was associated with a 1.08-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.17) increased odds of treatment failure. Conclusions. Achieving a sufficient exposure to miltefosine is a significant and critical factor for VL treatment success, find more suggesting an urgent need to evaluate the recently proposed optimal allometric miltefosine dosing regimen. This study establishes the first evidence for a drug exposure-effect relationship for miltefosine in the treatment of VL.”
“Objective: Previously, we reported that enhancer of polycomb1 (Epc1) induces skeletal muscle differentiation through the serum response factor (SRF). Considering that SRF plays a critical role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation, we expected that Epc1 also works in VSMCs. Here we examined the effect of Epc1 on neointima formation after arterial balloon injury and the underlying mechanism.\n\nMethods: Epc1 expression was examined in carotid artery injury or VSMC models.


“A novel combined catalyst of fumed silica (SiO2) with Ni2


“A novel combined catalyst of fumed silica (SiO2) with Ni2O3 was demonstrated to be more efficient than SiO2 or Ni2O3 alone in enhancing the char yield of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and improving its char layer structure, which greatly enhanced the flame retardancy of PLA. The results of field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the residual chars mainly consisted of block-like carbon and carbon nanotubes with VX-680 ic50 some surface functional groups. The

flame retardancy of PLA and its composites was studied by cone calorimeter test. The heat release rate and total heat release of PLA composites containing both SiO2 and Ni2O3 decreased significantly in comparison with those of neat PLA. The investigation of the this website synergetic mechanism showed that in the presence of both SiO2 and Ni2O3, a large amount of chars were in situ formed from the catalytic carbonization of degradation products of PLA by Ni2O3 during combustion.

This not only reduced the release of flammable degradation products, but also acted as an insulating barrier to prohibit the oxygen and feedback of heat from reaching the underlying substrate. On the other hand, the formation of a percolated network structure of SiO2 and Ni2O3 particles in PLA matrix increased the melt viscosity of PLA and facilitated the formation of a more compacted protective layer, which promoted the flame retardancy of PLA. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“PURPOSE. To determine how visual field loss as assessed by microperimetry is correlated with deficits in face recognition. METHODS. Twelve patients (age range, 26-70 years) with impaired visual sensitivity in the central visual field caused by a variety of pathologies and 12 normally sighted controls (control subject [CS] group; age range, 20-68 years) performed a face recognition LGX818 cell line task for blurred

and unblurred faces. For patients, we assessed central visual field loss using microperimetry, fixation stability, Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity, and letter acuity. RESULTS. Patients were divided into two groups by microperimetry: a low vision (LV) group (n = 8) had impaired sensitivity at the anatomical fovea and/or poor fixation stability, whereas a low vision that excluded the fovea (LV: F) group (n = 4) was characterized by at least some residual foveal sensitivity but insensitivity in other retinal regions. The LV group performed worse than the other groups at all blur levels, whereas the performance of the LV: F group was not credibly different from that of the CS group. The performance of the CS and LV: F groups deteriorated as blur increased, whereas the LV group showed consistently poor performance regardless of blur.

Furthermore, the number of resorption pits on CPC was reduced in

Furthermore, the number of resorption pits on CPC was reduced in these cultures compared with immunomagnetically enriched monocytes and preparations without additional plastic adherence steps. Optimal results with regard to yield, SCH727965 number

of multinucleated osteoclasts, activity of TRAP and CA II, and resorption of CPC were obtained by simple density gradient centrifugation. Conclusion: All examined monocyte preparation protocols were suitable for the generation of osteoclasts on both polystyrene and CPC. Highly purified monocytes are not mandatory to obtain functional osteoclasts for investigation of biomaterial resorption.”
“We explore the effect of fluorine doping on hydrophobicity of nanoporous selleck chemicals silicon carbide-derived carbon (SiCDC), and investigate the underlying barriers for adsorption and diffusion Of water vapor and CO2 in the fluorinated and nonfluorinated structures: We develop atomistic models

of fluorine-doped SiCDC at three different levels of fluorination, based on a hybrid reverse Monte Carlo constructed model of SiCDC, and develop a novel fir-principles force field for the simulation of adsorption and transport of water and CO2 in the fluorine-doped carbon materials. We demonstrate an apparent dual effect of fluorination, showing that while fluorination generates more hydrophilic carbon surfaces, they actually act as

more hydrophobic structures due to enhanced energy barriers in the disordered network of micropoous carbon. While an increase in adsorption energy and in water uptake AZD7762 is seen for fluorine-doped carbon, large internal free energy barriers as well as the results of MD Simulations demonstrate that the increased adsorption is kinetically limited and not experimentally observable on practical time scales. We show that an increase in apparent hydrophobicity due to fluorination is mediated by larger free energy barriers arising from stronger binding of fluid molecules inside the pore network, as opposed to repulsion or steric hindrance to the diffusion of molecules through narrow pore entries. For carbon dioxide, adsorption enthalpies and activation energy barriers are both decreased on fluorination, indicating weakened solid fluid binding energies in the fluorinated systems.

Supplementation of diet with zinc in the organic form (900 ppm) o

Supplementation of diet with zinc in the organic form (900 ppm) or inorganic form (2,400 ppm) increased feed intake and weight gain of piglets in the first three weeks after weaning. Supplementation of diet with 2,400 ppm of zinc in the

inorganic form reduced the occurrence of diarrhea in the first three weeks post-weaning. In experiment 2, levels of copper from organic source had a quadratic effect on feed intake of piglets in the periods from 0 to 31 and from 0 to 40 days post-weaning. The supplementation of diet with copper in organic form (90 ppm) or inorganic form (240 ppm) increases feed intake and weight gain of piglets on the first 40 days post-weaning.”
“With the recent introduction of inhibitors of this website mammalian target GSK1120212 price of rapamycin (mTOR) in oncology, distinct cutaneous and oral adverse events have been identified. In fact, stomatitis and rash

are documented as the most frequent and potentially dose-limiting side effects. Clinically, mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS) more closely resembles aphthous stomatitis than oral mucositis due to conventional anticancer therapies. While most cases of mIAS are mild to moderate and self-limiting, more severe and persistent mIAS can become a dose-limiting toxicity. Small ulcerations may cause significant pain and mucosal sensitivity may occur in the absence of clinical changes. Use of clinical assessment tools that are primarily driven by ulceration size may underestimate mIAS, and assessment should include patient-reported outcomes. This article provides an up-to-date review of the clinical presentation, terminology, pathogenesis, assessment and management of mIAS and other mTOR inhibitor-associated

oral adverse QNZ concentration events. In addition, areas of future research are considered.”
“Several recent studies have demonstrated that zwitterionic surfaces are highly resistant to protein fouling due to their highly hydrated structure. The objective of this study was to develop a more fundamental understanding of the fouling behavior of zwitterionic ultrafiltration membranes compared to a series of charged and neutral membranes with nearly identical pore size. Membranes were generated by chemical modification of a cellulosic membrane using epichlorohydrin activation followed by reaction with ligands having approximately the same length but different end-group functionality. The extent of modification was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the membrane surface characteristics were determined from streaming potential and contact angle measurements. Membrane fouling characteristics were studied under both static and dynamic filtration conditions using proteins with different size and isoelectric point.

To calculate environmental loads and for a proper risk assessment

To calculate environmental loads and for a proper risk assessment it is necessary to determine the antibiotic concentration Ruboxistaurin research buy in feces. Therefore,

a new liquid-liquid extraction method combined with HPLC-MS/MS for the detection of marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and difloxacin in chicken feces was developed. Recoveries ranged from 51.0% to 83.5%. LOQs were between 0.10 and 1.09 mu g/kg. Feces of chickens treated with an enrofloxacin dosage of 10 mg/kg bodyweight revealed maximum enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin concentrations of 61.3 and 18.8 mg/kg. Both antibiotics could be detected in feces up to two days after the last application in notable amounts (similar to 1 mg/kg). Thus, feces of recently medicated chickens should not be used as a fertilizer without any further processing. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Biomaterials may improve outcomes of endothelial progenitor-based therapies for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular disease, due to their ability to direct cell behavior. We hypothesized that local, sustained delivery of

exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF) from alginate hydrogels could increase recruitment of systemically infused endothelial progenitors to ischemic tissue, and subsequent neovascularization. VEGF and SDF were found to enhance in vitro adhesion and migration of outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) and circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), two populations of endothelial C59 cost find more progenitors, by twofold to sixfold, and nearly doubled recruitment to both ischemic and nonischemic muscle tissue in vivo. Local delivery of VEGF and SDF to ischemic hind-limbs in combination with systemic CAC delivery significantly improved functional perfusion recovery

over OEC delivery, or either treatment alone. Compared with OECs, CACs were more responsive to VEGF and SDF treatment, promoted in vitro endothelial sprout formation in a paracrine manner more potently, and demonstrated greater influence on infiltrating inflammatory cells in vivo. These studies demonstrate that accumulation of infused endothelial progenitors can be enriched using biomaterial-based delivery of VEGF and SDF, and emphasize the therapeutic benefit of using CACs for the treatment of ischemia.”
“Palatability enhances food intake by hedonic mechanisms that prevail over caloric necessities. Different studies have demonstrated the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the mesocorticolimbic system in controlling food hedonic value and consumption. We hypothesize that the endogenous cannabinoid system could also be involved in the development of food-induced behavioral alterations, such as food-seeking and binge-eating, by a mechanism that requires neuroplastic changes in the brain reward pathway.

02-1 12; P = 007) was associated with an increased

incid

02-1.12; P = .007) was associated with an increased

incidence of serious complication. CONCLUSION Most of the patients experience some complication after cystectomy and urinary diversion for benign indications. Duration of surgery is an important variable that can affect outcome. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“A semi-quantitative method was developed for the non-targeted detection of trace levels of human selenoproteins in cytoplasmic cell extracts without the use of radioactive isotopes. The method was based on the direct detection of selenoproteins in iso-electrofocusing (IEF) electrophoretic strips by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS). The proteins were identified in the non-ablated parts of the gel corresponding to the LA-ICP MS peak apexes AZD1480 inhibitor by electrospray Orbitrap MS/MS. The method allowed a high resolution

ACY-241 price of the selenoproteins (peak width 0.06 pH unit) using 3-10 pI strips. The protein detection limits were down to 1 ng mL(-1) (as Se). The method was applied to the selenoprotein speciation in different human cell lines: Hek293 (kidney), HepG2 (liver), HaCaT (skin) and LNCaP (prostate). The principal proteins found included Selenoprotein 15 (Sep15), Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) and Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) and Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRxR1) and Thioredoxin reductase 2 (TRxR2). Biological significance Our paper presents the development of a semi-quantitative method selleck compound for the non-targeted detection of trace levels of human selenoproteins in cytoplasmic cell extracts; it offers a first comprehensive screening of the entire biological selenoproteomes expressed in cell lines without the use of radioactive Se-75. The method was based on the direct detection of selenoproteins in iso-electrofocusing (IEF) electrophoretic strips by laser ablation-inductively

coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS). The proteins were identified in the non-ablated parts of the gel corresponding to the LA-ICP MS peak apexes by electrospray Orbitrap MS/MS. The method allowed a high resolution of the selenoproteins (peak width 0.06 pH unit) using 3-10 pI strips. The protein detection limits were down to 1 ng mL-1 (as Se); by far the lowest ever reported. The method was applied to the selenoprotein speciation in different human cell lines: Hek293 (kidney), HepG2 (liver), HaCaT (skin) and LNCaP (prostate). The principal proteins found included Selenoprotein 15 (Sep15), Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) and Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) and Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRxR1) and Thioredoxin reductase 2 (TRxR2). The IEF-LA-ICPMS indicates the presence of multiple forms of some selenoproteins which are for the moment impossible to distinguish because of the similarity of the bottom-up, proteomics data sets. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.