As a typical parameter

defined by this spatial distributi

As a typical parameter

defined by this spatial distribution, the center-of-mass drift velocity (W(r)) is determined for methane gas. The result is compared with the mean-arrival-time drift velocity U0126 (W(m)) defined from the arriving electron number at fixed positions. We have also performed a theoretical analysis in which a Fourier transformed Boltzmann equation is solved to deduce both of the drift velocities from a dispersion relationship. The difference between W(r) and W(m) at high E/Ns (above 200 Td) is clearly ascertained in the experimental and theoretical investigations, which is attributable to the occurrence of ionization events. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3142322]“
“We obtained brain MRIs, plasma homocysteine levels and apolipoprotein E genotyping for 11 American Indian Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects and 10 Indian controls. We calculated white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), whole brain volume (WBV), and ratio of white matter hyperintensity volume to whole brain volume (WMHV/WBV). There were no significant

differences Combretastatin A4 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor between AD subjects and controls in gender, history of hypertension, diabetes, or history of high cholesterol, but hypertension and diabetes were more common among AD subjects. There was no difference between AD and control groups in age (range for all subjects was 61-89 years), % Indian heritage, waist size or body mass index. Median Indian heritage was 50% or greater in both groups. Range of education was 5-13 years in the AD group and 12-16 years in controls. Median plasma homocysteine concentration was higher in AD subjects (11 mu mol/L vs. 9.8 mu mol/L), but did not achieve statistical significance. Significantly more AD subjects had apolipoprotein E 4 alleles than did controls (63% vs. 10%). Neuroimaging findings were not significantly different

between the 2 groups, but AD subjects had greater WMHV (median 15.64 vs. 5.52 cc) and greater WMHV/WBV ratio (median 1.63 vs. 0.65%) and a far greater range of WMHV. In combined AD subjects and controls, WBV correlated with BMI and age. WMHV and WMHV/WBV correlated inversely with MMSE scores (p = 0.001, 0.002, respectively). In addition, WMHV correlated positively with % Indian heritage (p = 0.047).”
“The purpose of this study was to determine whether levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in Sonidegib mw childhood are related to insulin resistance in adolescence. Further, to explore how fatness and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) moderate this relationship. Methods. 292 nine-year-old children (n = 292) were followed for 4 years. Anthropometrics and VO2peak were measured. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for IL-6, insulin, and glucose. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used as a measure of insulin resistance. Results. For girls but not boys, levels of IL-6 at age 9 yrs correlated with HOMA-IR at age 13 yrs: r = 0.223, P = 0.008.


“The postictal state is the abnormal condition occurring b


“The postictal state is the abnormal condition occurring between the end of an epileptic seizure and return to baseline condition. Applying this definition operationally can be difficult, especially for complex partial seizures, where cognitive and sensorimotor impairments merge imperceptibly into the postictal state. Many patients are unaware of even having had a seizure. Electroencephalography sometimes helps to distinguish ictal from postictal periods, but may demonstrate focal

slowing both during and after a seizure. Epileptiform electroencephalographic selleck compound changes do not always correspond precisely to behavioral changes, especially with scalp recordings. The postictal state ends at the interictal state, but this too can be ambiguous. Interictal spikes and spike-waves can be associated with cognitive and behavioral impairments, suggesting that they may represent fragments of ictal episodes. Except where boundaries are clear, it is better to describe a sequence of behaviors and electroencephalographic changes, without labeling arbitrary stages as being ictal or postictal. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We investigate magnetization reversal in a system of two Stoner

click here particles with uniaxial anisotropies both subject to a static and antiparallel magnetic field, and taking into account their mutual dipolar interaction. We identify an interesting regime of stable synchronized magnetic dynamics where the two particles are implementing a single information bit. Here a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth limit occurs which results in a dramatically lower critical switching field H-c (including H-c = 0) and also a substantially shorter reversal time. Our analytical results are verified by numerical simulations and offer new technological perspectives regarding devices for information storage and/or fast magnetic response. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics.

[doi:10.1063/1.3581106]“
“Melanoma is the most common lethal AZ 628 inhibitor cutaneous neoplasm. In order to harmonise treatment and follow-up of melanoma patients, guidelines for the management of melanoma in Switzerland were inaugurated in 2001 and revised in 2006. A new classification and recent results in randomised trials necessitated changes concerning staging and modifications of the recommendations of therapy and follow-up.”
“Little is known about how the brain limits seizure duration and terminates seizures. Depending on severity and duration, a single seizure is followed by various functional, metabolic, and synaptic changes that may form targets for novel therapeutic strategies. It is long known that most seizures are followed by a period of postictal refractoriness during which the threshold for induction of additional seizures is increased.

A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to provide antiviral tr

A multidisciplinary approach is warranted to provide antiviral treatment to patients suffering from depression.”
“Background: Diagnostic criteria for bronchiolitis are variable. Objective: To study how the risk factors for recurrent wheezing and asthma vary by different definitions of bronchiolitis.

Methods: Viral etiology and atopic characteristics were studied in 259 hospitalized wheezing children

(median age, 14 months; range, 0-36 months). The data were analyzed according to age (<6, <12, <24 and <36 months) and whether they had a history or no history of a previous wheezing episode. Sixteen viruses were detected by conventional AZD6738 chemical structure and molecular methods. Atopic characteristics included the presence of eczema, specific and total IgE responses, blood eosinophil count, and

modified asthma predictive index.

Results: Evidence of respiratory virus infection was found in 93% of the cases and allergic sensitization in 26% of the cases. Rhinovirus infections and atopic characteristics (sensitization, blood GSK1210151A research buy eosinophil count, and modified asthma predictive index) increased by age and were significantly more common in children with recurrent wheezing episodes than in first-time wheezers in age categories of <24 and <36 months (P < 0.05 for all).

Conclusions: In children with bronchiolitis, 2 clinical factors, age and number of previous wheezing episodes, are linked to inflammatory (atopy-related factors) and virologic risk factors of asthma (rhinovirus-associated disease). According to current US and UK guidelines,

bronchiolitis includes wheezing children <24 months of age. Our observations suggest that the clinical definition should include only children with their first episode of wheezing.”
“Tin (Sn) films of 1 mu m thick and 2-3 mu m grain size were electroplated over a silicon (Si) wafer. The wafer was first deposited with an adhesion layer of chromium (Cr) followed by a nickel (Ni) using the evaporation technique. A special fixture was used to apply a biaxial compressive stress to the Sn film. After exposing the sample to 160 degrees C under vacuum for seven days, large hillocks were observed having dimensions of 10-30 mu m in diameter and 30-150 mu m in length. The hillock density was approximately seven Tubastatin A mouse per square mm. A quantitative method was developed using surface mapping and MATLAB (TM) to estimate the volume of hillocks per unit area of the Sn film and thus, to relate that volume to the local compressive stress. The rate of growth was modeled as a flow of Sn atoms along the Sn/Ni interface under the applied pressure gradient. Reasonable viscosity and self-diffusivity were calculated, which suggested that Sn/Ni interface diffusion was potentially the mechanism for hillock growth. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3359658]“
“Background Inadequate access to oral health care places children at risk of caries.

5% vs 37 9%, p = 0 013) This difference remained after adjusting

5% vs 37.9%, p = 0.013). This difference remained after adjusting for center and other covariates.

CONCLUSIONS: In center and risk adjusted analysis, young children who received an ABOi transplant had equivalent one-year survival and freedom from rejection compared with those who received an ABOc transplant. In spite of the favorable outcome for ABOi recipients, many centers appear to reserve ABOi transplantation for sicker patients. These data mandate reexamination of the current United Network 3-MA research buy for Organ Sharing (UNOS) policy that gives priority to ABOc over ABOi transplantation in the United States. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:173-9 (C) 2012 International

Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“The results of a two-dimensional fluid simulation of a plasma display panel (PDP) cell show that the discharge characteristics of a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge can be controlled by the electrode tilt angle rather than by the gas mixture ratio or gap distance. The change in the tilt angle

results in a significant change in the wall charge distribution and the discharge duration for each pulse. Therefore, the breakdown voltage, plasma density, light brightness, and luminous efficacy can be controlled by the tilt angle. A concave electrode structure allows large wall charge accumulation near the outer edge of two coplanar electrodes, and it results in a long-duration discharge, high luminance, and high luminous efficacy. On the other hand, a convex electrode structure allows high wall charge accumulation near the gap between two coplanar electrodes, and it results in a short-duration Quisinostat ic50 discharge with a decreased breakdown voltage. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3606407]“
“We report a case of metastatic mesothelioma presenting as an oral metastasis in a 46-year-old patient. The patient presented with 2 polypoid lesions that appeared to be benign on the dorsum of the tongue. Excisional biopsy showed the presence of metastatic carcinoma that on further investigation selleck screening library proved to be mesothelioma.

The initial presentation of mesothelioma as an oral metastasis is not previously reported. This article highlights the importance of biopsy and histopathological diagnosis in presumed benign lesions and the role of the general dental practitioner in screening for oral neoplasms. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:e21-e26)”
“BACKGROUND: Nearly 25% of patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) will require cardiac transplantation. Whether post-transplant outcomes differ among patients with PPCM compared with other recipients remains unsettled.

METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for cardiac transplants, comparing characteristics and outcomes for PPCM, other women, and all others.

RESULTS: Between 1987 and 2010, 42,406 patients (9,419 women and 32,987 men) received a heart transplant.


“Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone i


“Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are CP-868596 diagnosed clinically based on

the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year,

and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription AZD4547 Vactosertib molecular weight footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated. (Copyright (C) 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“Elevated heparanase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, frequently found in human cancer, is a major cause of degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basement membrane (BM),

thus facilitating tumor cell migration and invasion. Although a lot of work has been done, the role of heparanase and MMP-9 has not been delineated in skin cancer progression. The purpose of this study was to do such an exploration. To investigate the role of heparanase and MMP-9 in cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) development, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to detect the alternation of these two factors in paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of normal skin, junctional nevi and CMM. It is interesting to note that the expression profile of heparanase and MMP-9 was similar. Contrary to negative staining in normal skin, overexpression of heparanase and cytoplasmic MMP-9 was observed in as many as 70% of CMM, whereas only 10% of the junctional nevi exhibited faint staining (P = 0.0005, P = 0.0000). Considering the lymph node (LN) metastasis, the expression of the two factors is significantly higher in LN-positive lesions than that in LN-negative lesions (P = 0.0295, P = 0.0013).

The effects of elevated CO2 on leaf traits,

The effects of elevated CO2 on leaf traits, FDA approved Drug Library price biomass allocation and photosynthetic potential were remarkably species-dependent. Suppression of photosynthetic activity, and enhancement of cell peroxidation by a combination of warming and severe drought, were partly alleviated

by elevated CO2. The relationships between plant functional traits and physiological activities and their responses to climate change were discussed. The present results suggested that the response to CO2 enrichment may strongly depend on the response of specific species under varying patterns of precipitation, with or without warming, highlighting that individual species and multifactor dependencies must be considered in a projection of terrestrial ecosystem response to climatic change.”
“The reaction of 2,2,3,3-tetracyanocyclopropyl selleck screening library ketones with hydrazine involved the addition at the carbonyl and cyano groups and resulted in the formation of previously unknown polycyclic systems whose common feature was the presence in the structure of a pyridazine ring. In the general case 3-substituted 6-amino-8-oxo-4,5,7-tptriazatricyclo[4.3.0.0(2.9)]-non-3-ene-1,9-dicarbonitriles

were obtained. The reaction with 3-pivaloylcyclopropane-1,1,2,2-tetracarbonitrile took another route with the opening of the three-membered ring and the formation of 3-amino-7a-tert-butyl-6-oxo-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-4aH-pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridazine-4,5-dicarbonitrile.”
“Objectives: To describe duplex ultrasound (DUS) outcomes 12 months following ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy

(UGFS) of primary great saphenous varicose veins (GSVV).

Methods: A consecutive series of UK National Health Service patients underwent serial DUS examinations following UGFS with 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate for symptomatic primary GSVV.

Results: 344 treated legs (CEAP C(2/3) 237, C(4) 72, C(5) 14, C(6) 21) belonging to 278 patients (103 male) of median age 57 (range 21-89) years were enrolled between November 2004 and May 2007. The median volume of foam used was 10 (range 2-16) ml. Above-knee (AK) and below-knee (BK) GSV reflux CT99021 was present in 333 (96.8%) and 308 (89.5%) legs respectively prior to treatment. AK and BK-GSV reflux was completely eradicated by a single session of UGFS in 323 (97.0%) and 294 (95.5%) legs respectively; and by two sessions of UGFS in 329 (98.8%) and 304 (98.7%) legs respectively. In those legs where GSV reflux had been eradicated, recanalisation occurred in 18/286 (6.3%) AK and 23/259 (8.9%) BK-GSV segments after 12 months follow-up.

Conclusions: A single session of UGFS can eradicate reflux in the AK and BK-GSV in over 95% of patients with symptomatic primary GSVV. Recanalisation at 12 months is superior to that reported after surgery and similar to that observed following other minimally invasive techniques. (C) 2010 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

We report a rare case of occult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) di

We report a rare case of occult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) diagnosed coincidently with AOSD. A 32-year-old

woman was diagnosed with AOSD according Buparlisib purchase to the diagnostic criteria of Yamaguchi as follows: leukocytosis with neutrophilia, high fever with 39A degrees C and above, arthralgia/arthritis, sore throat, liver dysfunctions, and lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy of cervical lymph node showed metastatic papillary carcinoma, and immunohistochemical staining for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1 was strongly positive. There was no evidence of focal lesion in the thyroid glands. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult onset Still’s disease diagnosed concomitantly with occult PTC.”
“Aim:

The aim of this study was to explore the dynamics within second medical opinion consultations in patients with cancer.

Methods:

Semi-structured interviews were held with four oncologists and were subjected to a thematic analysis to define the broad issues. These formed the basis of a survey distributed to Australian medical oncologists.

Results:

Overall 65 surveys were returned representing an overall response rate of 30% (10% and 63% electronic and hardcopy response rates, respectively). The dynamics in giving second medical opinions are influenced by the collegiate relationships

LY3023414 cost of the doctors. Nearly two-thirds of oncologists believed that the first doctors’ treatment and recommendations influenced the outcome of the second opinion, more than one-third believed the outcome was influenced by the relationship between the two doctors, and 41% believed the public nature of a second opinion was influential. In each case, these figures were more than double their assessments of patients’

beliefs of these influences. Care was taken not to criticise the primary doctor.

Conclusion:

Second medical opinions provide NSC 707545 an opportunity for oncologists to review medical care and engage in enhanced communication with patients who have additional needs. These consultations do not, however, occur in a vacuum but are influenced by the need to attend to relationships between the patient and their primary doctor and between the doctors themselves. The second medical opinion is embedded within a network of relationships and within the illness journey.”
“Background: Combination treatments, preferably containing an artemisinin derivative, are recommended to improve efficacy and prevent Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (AA) are efficacious regimens that have been widely adopted in sub-Saharan Africa. However, most study designs ignore the effects of these regimens on peripheral parasitaemia in the first 24 hours of therapy. The study protocol was designed to evaluate more closely the early effects and the standard measures of efficacies of these two regimens.

pylori infection, serological analysis of the antibody titers was

pylori infection, serological analysis of the antibody titers was done. Immunohistochemical analyses were applied to the tissue samples. Results. Serology was found positive at the 90.3% of the laryngeal

cancer patients and 96.4% of the benign group. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis results were determined as negative at all of the specimens of laryngeal cancer patients and patients with benign lesions. Conclusion. There were no signs of colonization of H. pylori in laryngeal tissues of both groups’ patients. It is thought that no relationship exists between the H. pylori infection and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.”
“Background: Abacavir sulfate (abacavir) is associated with a hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) that this website affects 5-8% of patients. While serious complications are rare, failure to identify it, or abacavir re-challenge following

HSR, can be fatal. Genetic screening for HLA-B*5701 can identify patients who are likely to experience an HSR and reduces the incidence MCC950 in vitro of the reaction.

Objective: We assessed the intrinsic and practical value, from the US healthcare system perspective, of prospective HLA-B*5701 screening among a population of antiretroviral-naive patients without elevated risk factors for cardiovascular disease, plasma HIV RNA >100 000 copies/mL, or preexisting renal insufficiency.

Methods: Two approaches were used to evaluate the costs and benefits of prospective screening. First, the efficiency of HLA-B*5701 screening compared with no screening prior to abacavir initiation (intrinsic value of screening) was evaluated using a 60-day decision-tree model. Next, the practical value of screening was assessed using a lifetime discrete-event simulation model that compared HLA-B*5701 screening prior

to abacavir use versus BYL719 initiation with a tenofovir-containing regimen. Screening-effectiveness parameters were taken from an open-label trial that incorporated screening prior to abacavir initiation and other published studies. Treatment efficacy was derived from clinical trials. Modelling assumptions, costs ($US, year 2007 values) and other parameters were derived from published sources, primary data analysis and expert opinion. Multiple one-way sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed to assess parameter uncertainty.

The primary outcome measure for the short-term screening versus no screening analysis was cost per patient. For the long-term analysis, outcomes were presented as QALYs. Costs and effects were discounted at 3% per year.

Results: Over the first 60 days of treatment, prospective screening prior to abacavir initiation cost an additional $US17 per patient and avoided 537 HSRs per 10 000 patients. The per-patient cost of screening was sensitive to the cost of the genetic test, HSR costs and screening performance.

71 and 1 78 mg l(-1) for nano- and dissolved forms of Cu respecti

71 and 1.78 mg l(-1) for nano- and dissolved forms of Cu respectively. The acute toxicity of

metal NPs is not always explained, or only partly explained, by the presence of free metal ions: suggesting that other novel mechanisms may be involved in bioavailability. Evidence suggests that nanometals can cause a range of sublethal effects in fish including respiratory toxicity, disturbances to trace elements in tissues, inhibition of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase. and oxidative stress. Organ pathologies from nanometals can be found in a range of organs including the gill, liver, intestine, and brain. These sublethal effects suggest some common features in the sublethal responses to nanometals compared to metal salts. Effects on early life stages of fish are also emerging, with reports QNZ price of nanometals crossing the chorion (e.g., Ag-NPs). and suggestions that the nano-forms of some metals (Cu-NPs and ZnO NPs) may be more toxic to embryos or juveniles, than the equivalent metal salt. It remains possible that nanometals could interfere with, and/or stimulate stress responses in fish: but data has yet to be collected on this aspect. We conclude that nanometals

do have adverse physiological effects on fish, and the hazard for some metal NPs will be different to the traditional dissolved forms of metals. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum and primarily presents with pulmonary this website symptoms. Immunocompromised individuals are at high risk for contracting disseminated histoplasmosis, which can be fatal if left JIB-04 concentration untreated.

CASE: We present a case involving a 50-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with an ulcerated vulvar lesion concerning for carcinoma. Extensive workup revealed disseminated histoplasmosis without pulmonary manifestations. She was treated with an extended course of an antifungal agent. Her vulvar lesion resolved.

CONCLUSION: Vulvar histoplasmosis is a

rare etiology of vulvar pathology but one that should be considered in immunocompromised patients.”
“The extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in a variety of applications has raised great concerns about their environmental fate and biological effects. This study examined the impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and salts on ZnO NP dispersion/solubility and toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. To be able to better evaluate the toxicity of NPs, exposure in agar and on filter paper was proposed for enabling a comparison of the importance of different uptake routes. A dose-related increase in mortality was observed in earthworms exposed in agar with almost 100% mortality after 96 h exposure to the highest concentration (1000 mg ZnO/kg agar). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that the addition of salts enhanced the aggregation of ZnO NPs in agar and consequently affected the dissolution behavior and biological availability of the particles.

It now refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expressio

It now refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence. To date, the best understood epigenetic mechanisms are CpG DNA methylation and histone modifications. DNA methylation in particular Oligomycin A price has been the subject of intense interest because of its recently recognized role in disease, as well as in the development and normal function of organisms. Much of the focus of disease-related research has been on cancer because of the recognition that epigenetic alterations are common in cancer and probably

cooperate with genetic alterations to drive cancer formation. Our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in controlling gene expression has resulted from the study of cell line systems and simple model systems, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. We are now moving into an era of more complex model systems, such as transgenic and knockout mouse models, which will lead to further insight into epigenetics in development and human disease. The current models have revealed complex, tissue-specific effects of epigenetic mechanisms and have further informed our understanding of the role of DNA methylation and histone modifications on disease and development. The current state of these models is the subject of this Commentary.”
“A novel solvent casting preparation technique utilizing three variants of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to

achieve a thermal cut off and a self regulation effect at a low applied voltage is reported in this study. The positive temperature coefficient (PTC) composites were prepared selleck kinase inhibitor by dissolving

PVDF in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent, blending with Vulcan (R) XC72 carbon black (CB) filler, crosslinking with vinyl trimethoxysilane (VTMOS) and quenching in water. All composites displayed a highly macrovoidal structure that promoted a PTC effect when subjected to a thermal expansion effect via an electrical current. Subsequently the current was cut off click here and self regulation behavior was exhibited. Kynar (R) 761A PVDF resulted in the strongest PTC effect, and displayed temperature regulation at around 100 degrees C which may be attributed to the highly semi crystalline nature and the larger molecular weight of this polymer in comparison with the other PVDF composites studied. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 3673-3678, 2011″
“Two different methods, the conventional direct oxide synthesized method and the two-step indirect synthesized (IS) method, were employed to synthesize the 0.75Pb(Fe(2/3)W(1/3))O(3)-0.25PbTiO(3) ceramics. The low-field dielectric responses were investigated using the empirical law and the Curie-Weiss law. The temperature-dependent local ordering parameters were derived from the experimental results using the spin-glass model and the modified-Landau theory separately.