“Objective. Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is feasible using either an extraperitoneal (EP) or a transperitoneal (TP) approach. This study reports on the experience of a single hospital using both techniques. Material and methods. From July 2009 to March 2011, 170 patients underwent
RARP. EP was chosen in 103 patients and TP in 67. TP was preferred in cases previous mesh hernia repair or if extended lymph-node dissection (LND) was considered necessary. Otherwise, EP was performed; it was preferred in cases of obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 30kg/m(2))) or previous intra-abdominal surgery. Results. There were no significant differences in preoperative mean LY411575 solubility dmso age (64.4 vs 65.6 years), BMI (26.5 vs 26.3 kg/m(2)) or prostate size (51.8 vs 55.8 cm(3)) between
EP and TP patients. Owing to preoperative selection criteria, prostate-specific antigen levels and the average Gleason score were significantly lower in EP than in TP patients (p < 0.001). Whereas access time and time for anastomosis did not differ significantly (21 vs 19 min, p = 0.11, and 26 vs 24 min, p = 0.36, respectively), overall surgical time was significantly longer in TP (225 vs 191 min, p < 0.001). Blood loss was equal in both groups (EP 276 vs TP 281 ml, p = 0.88). Complication rates were lower in EP (n = 7, 6.8% vs n = 8, 12%, p = 0.024). Time until first defecation and last analgesic treatment were significantly shorter in EP (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The results of the current evaluation underline MK-2206 chemical structure the clinical advantages of an extraperitoneal approach for RARP. However, a transperitoneal approach is still considered necessary for extended LND or special clincial conditions. Robotic teams should be trained using both approaches.”
“Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for plants but limited information is Currently available on the molecular basis for Zn(2+) transport in crop species. To expand the knowledge on Zn(2+) transport in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a cDNA library prepared from barley roots
was expressed in the Screening Library yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant strain Delta zrt1/Delta zrt2, defective in Zn(2+) uptake. This strategy resulted in isolation and identification of three new Zn(2+) transporters from barley. All of the predicted proteins have a high similarity to the ZIP protein family, and are designated HvZIP3, HvZIP5 and HvZIP8, respectively. Complementation studies in Delta zrt1/Delta zrt2 showed restored growth of the yeast cells transformed with the different HvZIPs, although with different efficiency. Transformation into Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) uptake defective yeast mutants showed that the HvZIPs were unable to restore the growth on Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) limited media, respectively, indicating a specific role in Zn 2;, transport. In intact barley roots, HvZIP8 Was constitutively expressed whereas HvZlP3 and HvZIP5 were mainly expressed in -Zn plants.