“Objective Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)

“Objective. Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is feasible using either an extraperitoneal (EP) or a transperitoneal (TP) approach. This study reports on the experience of a single hospital using both techniques. Material and methods. From July 2009 to March 2011, 170 patients underwent

RARP. EP was chosen in 103 patients and TP in 67. TP was preferred in cases previous mesh hernia repair or if extended lymph-node dissection (LND) was considered necessary. Otherwise, EP was performed; it was preferred in cases of obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 30kg/m(2))) or previous intra-abdominal surgery. Results. There were no significant differences in preoperative mean LY411575 solubility dmso age (64.4 vs 65.6 years), BMI (26.5 vs 26.3 kg/m(2)) or prostate size (51.8 vs 55.8 cm(3)) between

EP and TP patients. Owing to preoperative selection criteria, prostate-specific antigen levels and the average Gleason score were significantly lower in EP than in TP patients (p < 0.001). Whereas access time and time for anastomosis did not differ significantly (21 vs 19 min, p = 0.11, and 26 vs 24 min, p = 0.36, respectively), overall surgical time was significantly longer in TP (225 vs 191 min, p < 0.001). Blood loss was equal in both groups (EP 276 vs TP 281 ml, p = 0.88). Complication rates were lower in EP (n = 7, 6.8% vs n = 8, 12%, p = 0.024). Time until first defecation and last analgesic treatment were significantly shorter in EP (p < 0.05). Conclusions. The results of the current evaluation underline MK-2206 chemical structure the clinical advantages of an extraperitoneal approach for RARP. However, a transperitoneal approach is still considered necessary for extended LND or special clincial conditions. Robotic teams should be trained using both approaches.”
“Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for plants but limited information is Currently available on the molecular basis for Zn(2+) transport in crop species. To expand the knowledge on Zn(2+) transport in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a cDNA library prepared from barley roots

was expressed in the Screening Library yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant strain Delta zrt1/Delta zrt2, defective in Zn(2+) uptake. This strategy resulted in isolation and identification of three new Zn(2+) transporters from barley. All of the predicted proteins have a high similarity to the ZIP protein family, and are designated HvZIP3, HvZIP5 and HvZIP8, respectively. Complementation studies in Delta zrt1/Delta zrt2 showed restored growth of the yeast cells transformed with the different HvZIPs, although with different efficiency. Transformation into Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) uptake defective yeast mutants showed that the HvZIPs were unable to restore the growth on Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) limited media, respectively, indicating a specific role in Zn 2;, transport. In intact barley roots, HvZIP8 Was constitutively expressed whereas HvZlP3 and HvZIP5 were mainly expressed in -Zn plants.

Intervention: BAHA placement using 3- and 4-mm fixtures

Intervention: BAHA placement using 3- and 4-mm fixtures.

Main Outcome Measures: Osseointegration failure with implant extrusion.

Results: Fifty-seven loaded fixtures

in the pediatric population, and 20 were placed in the adults. We had a 21% pediatric and 0% adult osseointegration failure selleck chemicals rate.

Conclusion: Young age, syndromic status, and failure to penetrate the inner table of the cranium increased the risk of osseointegration failures in children. In some cases, skull thickness provides an inadequate amount of bone for 4-mm fixture placement requiring placement of a 3-mm fixture instead. In these cases, transcalvarial placement of the implanted click here fixture may decrease the extrusion rate as 3-mm fixtures have been associated with increased rates of implant extrusion. The 3-mm fixtures that were placed in a transcalvarial fashion had a decreased extrusion rate compared with 3-mm fixtures that were surrounded by bone and did not penetrate the inner table of the cranium. Individual patient factors out of the surgeon’s control likely play a large role in osseointegration failures as well. This clinical case report encourages transcalvarial fixture insertion when using 3-mm fixtures during placement of osseointegration surgical hardware for BAHAs.”
“Few studies

on micronutrients and postmenopausal

breast cancer have examined the association with breast cancer characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and beta-carotene from diet and supplements and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer subtypes defined by histology (ductal/lobular), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PGR) status. In a prospective cohort study of 26 224 postmenopausal women information on diet, supplements and lifestyle was collected BI 2536 in vitro through questionnaires. One thousand seventy-two cases were identified during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios of total breast cancers and breast cancer subtypes related to micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. This study found no association between overall breast cancer and any micronutrients, while some effects were shown when stratifying by breast cancer subtypes: dietary but not supplemental beta-carotene showed a protective effect against lobular breast cancer [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.91]. Dietary vitamin E was associated with decreased risk of ER and PGR positive breast cancer (IRR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.98) and dietary folate was associated with increased risk of ER and PGR positive breast cancer (IRR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03-1.95).

These data emphasize the role of the T2 allele in CBAVD, and iden

These data emphasize the role of the T2 allele in CBAVD, and identify the T2 allele as a severe CBAVD disease-causing mutation. According to the data, the longer (TG)(m) polymorphic tract increases the proportion of transcripts with exon 9 deletion (9-), but only when activated by the short T allele.”
“We previously demonstrated that hepatic ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury increased liver metastasis and cancer growth of RCN-H4 cells. Using a rat model of hepatic I/R-induced liver metastasis, we investigated the metastasis-suppressing effect of polysaccharide-K

(PSK), a biological response modifier composed of protein-bound polysaccharide.

Fischer rats underwent 60 min of 70% partial hepatic ischemia. After 60 min of reperfusion, rat colon adenocarcinoma AZD1480 in vivo cells (RCN-H4) were inoculated intrasplenically. PSK was administered orally before I/R, after I/R, or before and after I/R. The weights of metastatic lesions of the liver or the numbers of liver metastatic nodules were

determined on day 21. The effect of PSK on angiogenesis was studied by a rat cornea model using RCN-H4 cells or a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-containing pellet and an in vitro VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration assay.

PSK administration significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed the I/R-induced increase in BKM120 hepatic metastasis of RCN-H4 cells. The suppression of I/R-promoted metastasis was observed irrespective of the timing of administration. Furthermore, PSK significantly suppressed angiogenesis induced by RCN-H4 cells (p < 0.05) and the VEGF pellet (p < 0.01). PSK significantly suppressed the VEGF-induced migration of vascular endothelial cells (p < 0.05).

PSK may suppress metastasis

induced by hepatic I/R. The suppression of angiogenesis by PSK may be one of the mechanisms of the inhibition of hepatic metastasis.”
“In this review, we summarize seven strategies for structure elucidation SB202190 in vitro of small molecules based on several aspects: discovery of spectral characteristics; construction of a special database; and elimination of retention-index variation and mass spectral differences.

We also discuss trends and future perspectives of the structure elucidation of small molecules using data from gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Valve effective orifice area EOA and transvalvular mean pressure gradient (MPG) are the most frequently used parameters to assess aortic stenosis (AS) severity. However, MPG measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) may differ from the one measured by transthoracic Doppler-echocardiography (TTE). The objectives of this study were: 1) to identify the factors responsible for the MPG measurement discrepancies by CMR versus TTE in AS patients; 2) to investigate the effect of flow vorticity on AS severity assessment by CMR; and 3) to evaluate two models reconciling MPG discrepancies between CMR/TTE measurements.

Administration of DOCA salt significantly increased the systolic

Administration of DOCA salt significantly increased the systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared

to sham-operated control rats. When treated with chloroform (CFM), ethyl acetate (EAFM) or methanol fractions of M. maderaspatana (MFM), EAFM alone significantly lowered the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The levels of magnesium and copper significantly increased in plasma and decreased in tissues while the zinc level significantly increased in plasma and tissues, and administration of EAFM brought these parameters back to sham-operated control levels. By GC-MS analysis, phytochemicals such as coumarin, vallinic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were identified in EAFM. In conclusion, HSP990 cost the EAFM controls blood pressure in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and reverts the metabolic alterations in magnesium, copper and zinc.”

The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) can be injured during trauma or Surgery. So far there is no consensus for evaluating IAN injury. This study aimed to identify a testing method Suitable for daily clinical practice which allows us to identify nerve injury, grade its severity, and monitor its recovery.

Materials and https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2606368.html Methods: Covering a 20-year period, prospective studies on sensory changes after mandibular procedures were reviewed regarding sensory testing methods; 75 studies on third molar removal, osteotomy, fracture, and implants were included.

Results: These

studies reported varying incidences. In third molar removal and implant studies, a limited number of sensory tests PF-00299804 research buy were used, whereas in osteotomy and fracture studies more detailed testing was performed, using reproducible tests like light touch test with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and 2-point discrimination.

Conclusions: Sensory function was not uniformly tested and presented, making a comparison of data impossible and highlighting the need for uniform testing methodology. Based on the results of this review, the light touch test with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments for grading is recommended, using a grid and control site describing unilateral or bilateral nerve injury. Additionally, a visual analog scale-based questionnaire should be used to evaluate subjective sensibility. Using this method to test IAN injuries will allow comparison of future studies and provide valuable insight in the severity and prognosis of IAN injuries. (C) 2009 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons”
“PURPOSE: To determine whether alterations in architecture cause corneal biomechanical changes after simultaneous cataract surgery and limbal relaxing incisions (LRIs).

SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Kitasato University, Kanagawa, Japan.

Design: In 22 NICO patients, not having taken bisphosphonates, mu

Design: In 22 NICO patients, not having taken bisphosphonates, mutations affecting NO production (eNOS T-786C, stromelysin 5A6A) were measured by polymerase chain

reaction. Two healthy normal control subjects were matched per case by race and gender.

Results. Homozygosity for the mutant eNOS allele (TT) was present in 6 out of 22 patients (27%) with NICO compared with 0 out of 44 (0%) race and gender-matched control subjects; heterozygosity (TC) was present in 8 patients (36%) versus 15 control subjects (34%); and the wild-type normal genotype (CC) was present in 9 patients (36%) versus 29 controls (66%) (P = .0008). The mutant eNOS AICAR supplier T-786C allele was more common in cases (20 out of 44 [45%]) than in control subjects (15 out of 88 [17%]) (P = .0005). The distribution of the stromelysin 5A6A genotype in cases did not differ from control subjects (P = WH-4-023 research buy .13).

Conclusions. The eNOS T-786C polymorphism affecting NO production is associated with NICO, may contribute to the pathogenesis of NICO, and may open therapeutic medical approaches to treatment of NICO through provision of L-arginine, the amino-acid precursor of NO. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;

109: 548-553)”
“By 2015, it is estimated that nearly half of those living with HIV in the US will be 50 years of age and older. This dramatic change in the demographics of this clinical population represents unique challenges for patients, health care providers, and society-at-large. Fortunately, because of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and healthy lifestyle choices, it is now possible for many infected with selleck HIV to age successfully with this disease; however, this depends upon one’s definition of successful aging. It is proposed that successful aging is composed of eight factors: length of life, biological health, cognitive efficiency, mental health, social competence, productivity, personal control, and life satisfaction. Unfortunately, HIV and medication side effects can compromise these factors, thus diminishing one’s capacity to age successfully with this

disease. This article explores how HIV, medication side effects from HAART, and lifestyle choices can compromise the factors necessary to age successfully. Implications for practice and research are posited.”
“The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders for children with epilepsy in the general population is unknown. In a prospective community-based study of newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder was determined from parental interviews, medical records, and expert reviews by a child psychiatrist. A total of 28 (5%) participants had autism spectrum disorders. West syndrome (prevalence ratio = 4.53, P = .002) and intellectual impairment (prevalence ratio = 4.34, P = .002) were independently associated with autism spectrum disorder. Absent West syndrome, male gender was associated with autism spectrum disorder (prevalence ratio = 3.71, P = .

Results: Overall, 250 patients were evaluated No statistically s

Results: Overall, 250 patients were evaluated. No statistically significant difference between 16- and 18-gauge biopsy needles was recorded for cancer detection rate (29.6 vs. 30.4%, p = 0.890), core fragmentation rate (5 vs. 7%, p = 0.425) and shorter specimen (2 vs. 2%, p = 0.309).

Pain control was similar in the two groups during the biopsy, 30 min after biopsy and the evening of the same day. Very small or absent bleeding was the more frequent complication observed in each group. Conclusion: Prostate detection selleck screening library rate and sample quality were not influenced by needle size. A 16-gauge needle biopsy does not increase TRUS PBx morbidity. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Individual sugars, organic acids, total polyphenols, vitamin C and

antiradical activity (as measured by DPPH method) were quantified in cultivated Fragaria vesca berries, comparing different varieties (Regina delle Valli, Alpine, Sara and Valitutto) and different environments with regard to altitude. Cultivar effect mainly influenced the concentration of total polyphenols and antiradical activity which are strongly correlated LY3039478 in vivo (R(2)=0.91; P=0.001); conversely, altitude seemed to exert an influence in sugar and organic acid composition. The comparison of the general quality of the most diffused cultivar of F. vesca (Regina delle Valli and Alpine) evidenced that both cultivars have the same nutritional properties, whereas Regina delle Valli is better than Alpine from the point of view of total polyphenolic content (716 vs 471 mg catechin/100 g fresh weight) and radical scavenging activity (301 vs 219 ml DPPH solution/100 g fresh weight), thus resulting more attractive from the health protecting attributes point of view. F. vesca berries showed also a concentration of

sugars, citric acid, malic acid and total polyphenols much higher than those reported in literature for Fragaria x ananassa. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To evaluate the outcome of hysteroscopic myomectomy in patients with infertility and recurrent abortions.

This was a retrospective clinical Tipifarnib nmr analysis of 186 patients who underwent hysteroscopic myomectomy by monopolar electrode loop. A second-look diagnostic hysteroscopy was performed in all cases within 2 months. The mean follow-up period was 36.5 months.

The mean age of the patients was 28.4 years. The presenting clinical complaint was primary infertility in 31% (62/200) patients, secondary infertility in 10% (20/200) patients, recurrent abortions in 50.5% (101/200) and preterm deliveries in 8.5% (17/200) patients. Final reproductive outcome was assessed for 186 patients, after excluding patients with other confounding factors, interfering in pregnancy outcome.

There was a significant difference in reduction of number of miscarriages and increase in term deliveries while the number of preterm deliveries remained almost the same. Fifty-eight out of 82 infertile patients (70.

The median OS duration was 13 6 months in vemurafenib recipients

The median OS duration was 13.6 months in vemurafenib recipients and 9.7 months in dacarbazine recipients

in the most recent OS analysis.

In the phase III trial, progression-free survival (PFS) [co-primary endpoint] was also significantly improved in vemurafenib versus dacarbazine recipients (median PFS of 5.3 vs 1.6 months), with a significant reduction in the risk of death or disease progression of 74% in the final PFS analysis.

Vemurafenib was also associated with a high overall response rate in patients with previously treated, BRAF(V600) mutation-positive, Selleckchem Stem Cell Compound Library stage IV melanoma, according to the results of a noncomparative, multicenter, phase II trial. Patients had received at least one prior systemic treatment for advanced disease (excluding BRAF inhibitors other than sorafenib or MEK inhibitors). The overall response rate (primary endpoint) was 53% (complete response rate of 6% and partial response rate of 47%), with a median duration of response of 6.7 months, and a median OS duration of 15.9 months.

Oral vemurafenib AP26113 concentration was generally well tolerated in patients with metastatic melanoma, with cutaneous adverse events among the most commonly occurring adverse events. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and/or keratoacanthoma were reported in 18% of vemurafenib recipients in the BRIM-3 trial.”

the perioperative phase, sepsis and sepsis-associated death are the most important problems for both the surgeon and the intensivist. Critically ill patients profit from an early identification and implementation of an interdisciplinary therapy. The purpose of this review on septic peritonitis this website is to give an update on the diagnosis and its evidence-based treatment.


diagnosis of sepsis is essential for patientA ‘ s survival. A bundle of studies was performed on early recognition and on new diagnostic tools for abdominal sepsis. Although surgical intervention is considered as an essential therapeutic step in sepsis therapy the time-point of source control is still controversially discussed in the literature. Furthermore, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines were updated in 2012 to facilitate evidence-based medicine for septic patients.

Despite many efforts, the mortality of surgical septic patients remains unacceptably high. Permanent clinical education and further surgical trials are necessary to improve the outcome of critically ill patients.”
“The enzyme replacement therapy agalsidase alfa (Replagal (R)) has an amino acid sequence identical to that of native alpha-galactosidase A; intravenous agalsidase alfa 0.2 mg/kg every other week is indicated for the long-term treatment of patients with confirmed Fabry disease. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of agalsidase alfa in patients with Fabry disease, as well as summarizing its pharmacologic properties.

This work is prompted

This work is prompted this website by recent work on single-walled CNTs and UDD ensemble [Gupta et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 104308 (2010)] where radiation-induced microscopic defects seem to be stabilized by UDD. The present experiments show similar effects

where these hybrids display only a minimal structural modification under the maximum dose. Quantitative analyses of multiwavelength Raman spectra revealed lattice defects induced by irradiation assessed through the variation in prominent D, G, and 2D bands. A minimal change in the position of D, G, and 2D bands and a marginal increase in intensity of the defect-induced double resonant Raman scattered D and 2D bands are some of the implications suggesting the radiation coupling. The in-plane correlation length (L(a)) was also determined following Tunistra-Koenig relation buy IPI-145 from the ratio of D to G band (I(D)/I(G)) besides microscopic stress. However, we also suggest the following taking into account of intrinsic

defects of the constituents: (a) charge transfer arising at the interface due to the difference in electronegativity of MWCNT C sp(2) and UDD core (C sp(3)) leading to phonon and electron energy renormalization; (b) misorientation of C sp(2) at the interface of MWCNT and UDD shell (C sp(2)) resulting in structural disorder; (c) softening or violation of the q similar to 0 selection rule leading to D band broadening and a minimal change in G band intensity; and (d) normalized intensity of D and G bands Panobinostat cell line with 2D band help to distinguish defect-induced double resonance phenomena. The MWCNT when combined with nanodiamond showed a slight decrease in their conductance further affected by irradiation pointing at relatively good interfacial contact. Furthermore, owing to high thermal and electrical conductivity properties, they can facilitate potentially efficient heat-transfer applications and some results deduced

using Nielsen’s model is provided. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3524187]“
“The brittleness of poly(styrene maleic anhydride) (SMA) was improved by compositing with elastic poly(methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene) (MBS) to develop it into optical film. Transparent and flexible SMA films were prepared, and the flexibility of them was checked by folding endurance test and folding bend. The transparence of SMAMBS films were proved by the transmittance and haze measurements. In actual view, the letters could be clearly observed while they were covered by prepared films. The thermal stability of them was confirmed by DSC and TGA analysis. These physical properties of films are comparable to that of polycarbonate which is widely used as optical film.

Trans-sphenoidal surgery can decompress the optical nerve or ocul

Trans-sphenoidal surgery can decompress the optical nerve or oculomotornerve as a therapeutic strategy, and support biopsy or further pathological diagnosis. However, the hormonal therapy should be emphasized both as diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Conservative and tentative steroid treatment should be performed in preoperative period without acute nerve damage.”
“Organicinorganic composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) are of interest in fuel cell applications because of potential benefits in conductivity, mechanical, and transport properties that may be imparted by the inorganic component. Our previous work showed that polymeric Panobinostat ic50 membranes based on blends of poly(vinylidene

fluoride) (PVDF) and cross-linked sulfonated acrylic polyelectrolytes (PE) compare favorably against the proton conductivity and mechanical properties of commercial perfluorosulfonic acid-based PEMs. One problem found in the previous study was that crystalline regions in homopolymers of PVDF interfered with the formation of proton conducting pathways by the PE component. In this study, we explore the ability to use proton-conductive

zirconium-based inorganic particles to improve conductivity in such PVDF/PE membranes. Three different particles were considered, namely, zirconium oxide, zirconium hydroxide sulfate, and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Dispersion of particles in the polymer matrix was limited, resulting in severe Ilomastat ic50 aggregation at particle loadings above 5 wt %. Nevertheless, a general improvement in proton conductivity was evidenced in composite membranes with 0.5 to 1 wt % particle loadings. This beneficial effect was particularly noticeable in membranes manufactured from highly crystalline PVDF

homopolymers (7 to 14% increase). We propose that the surface of zirconium particles act to provide proton conducting pathways between PE regions that otherwise would become blocked due to PVDF crystallization. In addition to conductivity, composite membranes exhibited enhancement find more of tensile properties at identical particle loadings, especially in membranes containing more flexible PVDF:HFP copolymers, where a reinforcing stiffening effect was evident (19 to 22% elastic modulus increment). (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Purpose: To quantify tumor blood flow by using contrast material-enhanced destruction-replenishment ultrasonography (US) to evaluate tumor response to different doses of an agent for antiangiogenic treatment in hepatoma-bearing mice, with histologic measurements of microvascular density (MVD) as the reference standard.

Materials and Methods: Experiments were approved by the regional animal care committee. Mice bearing subcutaneous H22 hepatoma were treated with different doses of thalidomide, 100 mg/kg in group B and 200 mg/kg in group C. Group A (control group) was treated with 0.5% carboxylmethylcellulose.

Analysis of all results shows that nitro polycyclic aromatic hydr

Analysis of all results shows that nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons eFT508 mw (PAHs) are definitely environmental genotoxic/mutagenic hazards and confirms that environmental aromatic nitration reactions lead to an increase in genotoxicity and mutagenicity properties. Particularly 1-NPy and 1,8-DNPy can be considered as human potential

carcinogens. They seem to be significant markers of the genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and potential carcinogenicity of complex PAHs mixtures present in traffic emission and industrial environment. In prevention of environmental carcinogenic risk 1-NPy and 1,8-DNPy must therefore be systematically analyzed in environmental complex mixtures in association with combined umuC test, CBMN assay, and FISH on cultured human lymphocytes. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.”
“Artemisia lavandulaefolia has been utilized in traditional medicines for the treatment of several diseases. In this study, we attempted to determine whether the essential oil and 1,8-cineole of A. lavandulaefolia induce apoptosis in KB cells. The oil and 1,8-cineole induced the cell death of KB cells as evidenced by the increased cell population in the sub-G1 phase, the appearance of condensed and/or fragmented nuclei, and the generation of a cleaved PARP product. The treatment of the cells with the oil also induced

changes in the mitochondrial level of Bcl-2 and Bax, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Furthermore, the oil increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK, but 1,8-cineole activated pp38 and INCB018424 molecular weight pJNK at the same concentrations. These findings show that S3I-201 concentration the mitochondrial and MAPKs pathways might be involved in the oil-induced apoptosis, and may enhance our current understanding of the anticancer functions of the oil to a greater degree than 1,8-cineole.”
“In this paper, the microbial transformation of resibufogenin (1) by Curvularia lunata AS 3.4381 was investigated, and four transformed products were isolated and characterized as 3-epi-resibufogenin (2),

12-hydroxy-3-epi-resibufogenin (3), 12-oxo-16-hydroxy-3-epi-resibufogenin (4), and 12,15-epoxy-3-epi-bufalin-14,15-ene (5). Among them, 4 and 5 are new compounds, and isomerization, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions in microbial transformation process were observed. Additionally, the cytotoxicities of transformed products (2-5) were also investigated.”
“Although there have been advances in the fields of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy of tongue cancer, the cure rates are still not substantially satisfactory. Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the major pungent ingredient of hot chili pepper and has been reported to have an antitumor effect on many human cancer cell types. The molecular mechanisms of the antitumor effect of capsaicin are not yet completely understood.