(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Although vario

(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Although various cultured cells are used for propagating influenza A viruses, the types of cells which can support replication of and plague production by low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses without supplementary trypsin are limited. In this study, the infectivity and growth kinetics of as well as plaque production by LPAI viruses in Caco-2 cells were investigated. The suitability of this cell line for virus isolation

was examined and compared with virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs. Generation of Caco-2 mediated viral variants, if any, was assessed phenotypically and genotypically. It was found that Caco-2 cells can readily support continued replication of LPAI viruses without supplementary trypsin. Viruses replicate to high titer compared SB431542 ic50 to embryonated chicken eggs, and more efficiently

than in MDCK cells, without trypsin. Also, GSK621 in vitro LPAI viruses produced plagues in Caco-2 cells. However, these cells were found to be less sensitive than embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation. Notably, no phenotypic and genotypic changes of the viruses were observed during viral passages (at least up to 10th passage) in Caco-2 cells. These findings indicate that Caco-2 cells may provide an appropriate substrate for studying and cultivating AIVs. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The development of major depression requires both genetic and environmental factors. A brain proteomic investigation on the genetic model of Flinders sensitive and resistant line (FSL-FRL) rats was performed. Maternal separation (MS) was also applied to identify protein networks affected by stress exposure, since early-life trauma is considered an important antecedent of depression. Hippocampus

(HIP) and prefrontal/frontal cortex proteins were extracted and separated FG-4592 chemical structure by 2-Dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. After image analysis, significantly modulated proteins in the different conditions analysed were identified by mass spectrometry. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, cellular localization and transport, cytoskeleton organization and apoptosis differed in the two lines. Maternal separation differently affected the genetic backgrounds, by modulating cytoskeleton and neuron morphogenesis proteins in FSL; energy metabolism, cellular localization, neuron differentiation and intracellular transport in FRL. The present work shows that different mechanisms could be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and the vulnerability to stress, suggesting possible new cellular pathways and key markers for the study of affective disorders. (C) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed specifically for detection and differentiation of pseudorabies virus (PRV).

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