pneumoniae infections are not well described, particularly among high-risk patients. Therefore, we sought to describe changes RAD001 cell line in the epidemiology from 2002 to 2011 of pneumococcal disease nationally among adults aged 50 years and older in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System, specifically disease incidence and risk factors for S. pneumoniae
among those with serious pneumococcal infections. Methods The study design and methods were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board and Research and Development Committee of the Providence VA Medical Center. This article does not contain any new studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors. Data Sources The VA Healthcare System operates 151 medical centers STA-9090 and 827 community-based AZD1480 nmr outpatient clinics throughout the US . Inpatient and outpatient care is captured electronically in each VA healthcare facility through the electronic medical record system, which
has been in place since 1999 . We identified S. pneumoniae using microbiology data and merged data from multiple domains, including demographics, medical, and immunization to capture patient care [21, 22]. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) diagnostic and procedure codes from inpatient and outpatient records were utilized to identify patient comorbidities, risk factors, and infection history [23, 24]. Immunization administration records were used to determine vaccination rates. Patient Population and Study Design We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study
of patients age 50 years and older with microbiology cultures from any collection site positive for S. pneumoniae between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2011. To assess incidence, both inpatient and outpatient cultures were included. Repeat positive S. pneumoniae cultures from the same patient within a 30-day period were considered to represent the same episode of infection Vasopressin Receptor . Yearly incidence rates were calculated as the number of pneumococcal infections per 100,000 clinic visits or per 100,000 hospital admissions. To describe the epidemiology of serious (bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia) S. pneumoniae infections, we included positive respiratory, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid cultures collected during a hospital admission. Bacteremia and meningitis were identified from positive cultures. Pneumonia was defined as a positive respiratory culture with a corresponding ICD-9 code for pneumonia (482.40–482.42, 482.49, 482.89, 482.9, 484.8, 485–486, 510.0, 510.9, 513.0–513.1) [23, 24]. Invasive pneumococcal disease was categorized as bacteremia, meningitis, and bacteremic pneumonia; and non-invasive disease included pneumonia without bacteremia. Bacteremic pneumonia was defined by the presence of both pneumococcal pneumonia and bacteremia. Patient Characteristics We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics among inpatients infected with serious S. pneumoniae infections [23, 24].