coli cytosolic Trigger factor (TF) , the predicted helix 1-loop-helix 2 region of PpiD shows similarity on the amino acid level with the corresponding
region of TF (24.1% identity between regions 43-121 and 295-371 of PpiD and TF, respectively; see BLZ945 molecular weight additional file 1, B and E). The similarities in sequence and predicted structure between PpiD, SurA and TF suggest that PpiD contains a conserved SurA-like chaperone module. However, for a complete chaperone active module the region of PpiD that would correspond to the C-terminal helix of SurA still needs to be identified. As an integral element of the conserved module structure this helix is indispensable for the stability and activity of SurA [2, 42] and presumably also of other members of this family of chaperones. Selleck PARP inhibitor The C-terminal helix of SurA was originally identified as the stabilizing region of the protein as it is very basic (predicted STI571 in vivo isoelectric points of 10.5) as compared to the rather acidic N-terminal region (predicted
isoelectric point 5.3) . Similarly, the corresponding helix in the chaperone domain of TF is rather basic as opposed to the rest of the module (predicted isoelectric points of 8.4 and 4.7, respectively). Finally, the N-terminal region of PpiD is acidic too (predicted isoelectric point of 4.7) and therefore the single basic region of the protein which is located in the C-terminal domain (amino acids 511-560, predicted isoelectric point of 10) and is predicted to be rich in α-helical secondary structure, would be a primary candidate for the stabilizing region. Taken together, all indications are that PpiD is a membrane-anchored SurA-like multidomain chaperone, which like SurA combines a conserved chaperone module with an inactive parvulin domain. Different from SurA however, PpiD lacks a second active parvulin domain and instead contains a C-terminal domain, whose function remains to be determined. Docetaxel research buy Role of PpiD in the periplasm PpiD was previously reported to be redundant in function with SurA in the maturation of OMPs . Our results
however, establish that PpiD plays no major role in the biogenesis of OMPs and that it cannot compensate for lack of SurA in the periplasm. In addition, PpiD differs from SurA in that it requires to be anchored in the inner membrane to function in vivo whereas SurA is functional both in a soluble and in a membrane-anchored state (S. Behrens-Kneip, unpublished results). Then again, ppiD in multicopy suppresses the surA skp caused deficiencies. The strong induction of the σE and Cpx stress pathways during the course of depletion of SurA from Δskp cells is significantly reduced by simultaneous overproduction of PpiD. This suggests that increased levels of PpiD rescue surA skp cells from lethality by counteracting the severe folding stress in the cell envelope which results from the loss of periplasmic chaperone activity.