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Authors’ contributions AKP performed the animal experiment, undertook the lab analysis and discussed with IMC the original idea and design of the experiments. KEC worked as an undergraduate research assistant and helped with the animal and lab work, JRW assisted during the lab experiment and undertook the hematological analysis and IMC designed the experiment, helped with the animal experiment, carried out the analysis and their interpretation, conceived the paper and the original study. IMC and AKP wrote the paper with critical comments from JRW. All

authors approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thailand was ranked 18th among high-burden countries, with 91,000 cases per year and new cases of MDR-TB (resistance EVP4593 nmr to at least isoniazid and rifampicin) of approximately 1.7% [1]. Tuberculosis infection is increasing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients, affecting the TB control program as about one-third of Thai HIV/AIDS patients present with active TB [2–5]. The standard regimen for the treatment of TB consists of 2 months of intensive treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide (H, R, E, and Z), followed by 4 months of maintenance treatment with isoniazid and rifampicin (H and R). Whereas other first-line drugs do not reveal any problem for susceptibility testing,

this is not true for pyrazinamide, as it is active Selleckchem Ruboxistaurin against tubercle bacilli only at an Silibinin acidic pH (e.g., pH 5.5), resulting in that it cannot use conventional culture medium for susceptibility testing [6]. Pyrazinamide (PZA, Z) is a prodrug that requires conversion to the active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA), by mycobacterial pyrazinamidase (PZase) [7]. The exact target of POA is unknown. It has been suggested that the accumulation of POA in acidic conditions (from lactic acid produced by inflammation cells) leads to acidification of the cytoplasm and subsequent cell damage [7, 8]. Mycobacterial pyrazinamidase is encoded by pncA, and mutations in this gene have been demonstrated as the major mechanism of PZA resistance [9]. Several mutations, including missense, insertion, deletion and nonsense mutations, have been reported and located in both the putative promoter and coding regions of pncA [10]. PZA-resistant M.

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