Cuphophyllus acutoides from the eastern USA is related to the Eur

Cuphophyllus acutoides from the eastern USA is related to the European C. fornicatus. Hygrocybe clivalis (Fr.) P.D. Orton & Watling was originally described as a variety of Hygrophorus fornicatus Fr., and is currently considered as such by most authors (Arnolds 1985b, Bon 1989, Boertmann 2010). A collection from the UK identified by E. Arnolds as Entinostat datasheet H. fornicata var. clivalis, however, appears with a second UK collection in a distinct, highly supported clade in Dentinger et al.’s ITS analysis (100 % MLBS), supporting recognition at of H. clivalis at species rank. Hygrocybe fornicatus var. lepidopus (Rea) Boertm. & Barden is also currently recognized by most authors as a variety, but

a collection from the UK identified as H. lepidopus (Rea) P.D. Orton &

Watling appears in a separate, highly supported (100 % MLBS) clade in the ITS analysis by Dentinger et al. (unpublished), and if confirmed, PFT�� solubility dmso this taxon should also be recognized at species rank. Cuphophyllus , sect. Adonidum (Singer) Lodge & M.E. Sm., comb. nov. MycoBank MB804136. ≡ Cuphophyllus adonis (Singer) Lodge & M.E. Sm., comb. nov. Basionym: Camarophyllus sect. Adonidum (as Adonidi) Singer, Sydowia Beih. 7: 2 (1973). Type species: Camarophyllus adonis Singer, Sydowia 6(1–4): 172 (1952) Characters as in Cuphophyllus; basidiomes clitocyboid; pileus surface dry; pileus and lamellae pigmented violet, lilac or mauve; stipe white, cream or yellow; basidiospore Q mostly 1.1–1.5; ratio of basidia to basidiospore length 6.5–8; pileipellis a cutis, not an ixocutis. Phylogenetic support Only the type species has been sequenced, so phylogenetic support is irrelevant. There is no significant support for placing C. adonis as

sister to sect. Cuphophyllus in our Supermatrix, or as sister to the unplaced C. basidiosus—C. canescens—C. griseorufescens clade in our ITS-LSU analysis (Figs. 2 and 22 , respectively). Species included Type Cuphophyllus adonis. Hygrocybe cheelii A.M. Young and H. reesiae A.M. Young from Australia are placed in sect. Adonidum based on morphology and pigments. Comments Sect. Carbohydrate Adonidum most closely resembles sect. Cuphophyllus except for having violet and lilac rather than salmon and reddish brown pigments. These two sections share robust basidiomes with a dry pileus surface; lamellae that are thick and appear opaque from the refractive, interwoven context hyphae, subglobose to broadly ellipsoid spores, and long basidia relative to the length of the spores. Sects. Adonidum and Cuphophyllus may eventually be assigned to the same subgenus, possibly together with C. aurantius, and possibly also C. basidiosus, C. griseorufescens and C. canescens, but branch supports in our Supermatrix and ITS-LSU analyses are weak and the topology varies among analyses. Cuphophyllus sect. Cuphophyllus [autonym] Type species: Cuphophyllus pratensis (Fr.) Bon, Doc.

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