Immunization of female CBA mice by infection with live sporozoites of a single strain, CB or AJ, of the malaria parasite P. c. chabaudi, under the cover of the anti-blood-stage antimalarial drug, MF, induced responses that were variously effective before and/or during patent blood infection following challenge with either sporozoites or blood-stage parasites of one or the other of these two strains of parasite. The effects of immunization with live sporozoites under MF cover included strain-specific suppression
of pre-patent IWR-1 chemical structure parasite growth (CB sporozoite-immunization suppressed pre-patent parasite growth in CB sporozoite–induced infections but not in those of AJ sporozoite–induced infections); strain-specific suppression of patent erythrocytic parasite growth (CB sporozoite–immunisation suppressed blood-parasite growth in sporozoite- and blood parasite-induced infections of CB more than it did to
growth of blood parasites in corresponding AJ infections; AJ sporozoite–immunized mice partially suppressed growth of AJ blood parasites in sporozoite- and blood parasite-induced infections but did not suppress growth of CB blood parasites); pan-strain suppression buy Hydroxychloroquine of patent erythrocytic parasite growth (CB sporozoite–immunization suppressed growth of erythrocytic parasites in sporozoite- and blood parasite-induced infections of both AJ and CB). It should also be noted that the parasites showed strain-specificity, or its absence, in their immunological properties not only as targets of immunity but also as inducers of immunity. While both AJ and CB were involved in the induction of strain-specific immunity against the blood-stage parasites, only CB, and not AJ, live sporozoite immunization induced powerful pan-strain effects in suppressing blood-stage parasites. Such strain-specific properties of the induction of immunity against blood-stage parasites Histamine H2 receptor have been recorded previously among strains of P. c. chabaudi (1). The two strains differed also in the immunity they induced
against the parasites pre-blood patency. Experiments testing whether strains such as CB induce pan-strain immunity through broader antigen repertoire and whether this is linked to lower parasite densities in control infections are now required. Quantifying variation in strain-specificity and explaining the underlying mechanisms are central to predicting the success of interventions that work by inducing immunity. It is conceivable that differences in the viabilities of CB and AJ sporozoites may have contributed to some of the effects observed in this study, as this would result in the development of differing numbers of exo-erythrocytic stage parasites for each strain during the immunization procedure. However, we found no evidence for any differences in viabilities when assessing sporozoite motility prior to inoculation.