In particular, the significant increase of 2-pentanone can be reg

In particular, the significant increase of 2-pentanone can be regarded as the most interesting

effect associated with the synbiotic food intake. In fact, 2-pentanone, which is a naturally occurring compound in fruits, vegetables and fermented foods, has anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. According to Pettersson et al. [48], it inhibits the prostaglandin production and COX-2 protein expression in human colon cancer cells. The increase of 2,3-butanedione is interesting since it may have health benefits by impacting on the growth of some bacteria, such as L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ad Streptococcus thermophilus [41]. Furthermore, during glucose catabolism 2,3-butanedione serves as an electron acceptor and can be reduced to 2,3-butanediol via 17DMAG solubility dmso acetoin. This pathway was shown to be important in the removal of toxic amounts of pyruvate and in maintenance of pH homeostasis [49]. A diverse range of sulfur compounds has been identified in stool samples [41]. The usual source of sulfur compounds is the microbial breakdown of sulfur

containing amino acids and the increase of these compounds suggests an abundance or metabolic activity of Pitavastatin chemical structure bacteria able to Ruboxistaurin purchase breakdown cystein and methionine. In our study, a significant increase of carbon disulfide was observed following the feeding period. Carbon disulfide may be produced by carbonation of hydrogen sulphide as a detoxification mechanism exerted by colonic bacteria. According to Garner et al. [41],

carbon disulfide has been found in 100% of the samples from healthy donors and absent in many samples of patients with Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile. Various esters were detected in all fecal samples. In particular, a significant Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase increase of methyl acetate, ester of methanol and acetic acid, was evident after the synbiotic intake. Methanol is rarely found as free alcohol in the gut, where it is generated from the breakdown of macromolecules including pectins, bran and aspartame. In general, free alcohols and endogenous fatty acids are metabolized into fatty acid esters in liver, pancreas and intestine [50]. At the intestinal site, esterification of alcohols by colonic bacteria can be regarded as a microbial strategy to remove or trap toxic molecules such as fatty acids and alcohols. To sum up, the investigation of the fecal volatile metabolites by GC-MS/SPME allowed to correlate the consumption of the synbiotic food with the stimulation of health-promoting metabolic activities of the gut microbiota, such as regulation of the colonic epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties and detoxification processes.

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