In situ hybridization histochemistry showed intense expression of PAC1-R and weak expression of VPAC1-R mRNAs in layer IV of the cerebral cortex. Incubation of cortical tissue slices with PACAP induced a dose-dependent stimulation of cyclic AMP formation, indicating that PACAP binding sites correspond to functional receptors. Moreover, treatment of primate cortical slices with 100 nM PACAP significantly reduced the activity of caspase-3,
a key enzyme of the apoptotic cascade. The present results indicate that PACAP should exert the same neuroprotective effect in the brain of primates as in rodents and suggest that PAC1-R agonists may have a therapeutic value to prevent neuronal cell death after stroke or in specific neurodegenerative diseases. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
(Ad) vectors can vary considerably in genome www.selleckchem.com/products/citarinostat-acy-241.html length, but whether this affects virion stability has AR-13324 not been investigated. Helper-dependent Ad vectors with a genome size of similar to 30 kb were 100-fold more sensitive to heat inactivation than their parental helper virus (>36 kb), and increasing the genome size of the vector significantly improved heat stability. A similar relationship between genome size and stability existed for Ad with early region 1 deleted. Loss of infectivity was due to release of vertex proteins, followed by disintegration of the capsid. Thus, not only does the viral DNA encode all of the heritable information essential for virus replication, it also plays a critical role in maintaining capsid strength and integrity.”
“Four experiments examined the disruptive effects of selective lesions in limbic thalamic nuclei on retrosplenial cortex function, as characterized by striking
Flavopiridol mouse changes in immediate-early gene activity. Major goals were to test the specificity of these retrosplenial changes, to define better their time course, and to assess the spread of retrosplenial dysfunction with time post-surgery. Experiment I examined the activity of two immediate-early genes (c-Fos, Zif268) in the retrosplenial cortex after unilateral anterior thalamic nuclei lesions (1, 2, or 8 weeks post-surgery). Marked immediate-early gene hypoactivity in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the thalamic lesion was consistent across these different post-surgical intervals and, hence, across different rat strains. Concurrent processing of brain tissues from rats either 4 weeks or 1 year after anterior thalamic lesions (Experiments 2 and 3) enabled direct comparisons across very different survival times. The results confirmed that over time the immediate-early gene disruption expanded from the superficial laminae to the deep laminae of granular b cortex and to the dysgranular subregion, indicative of more global disruptions to retrosplenial cortex with extended survival. Associated, subtle changes to cell morphometry (size and sphericity) were found in the retrosplenial cortex.