In this regard, a very
interesting multivariate model was found for nBUA and BUB with Tb.Th* and Tb.N, in agreement with single scattering theories by random medium. However, the source of residual variability of nBUA and BUB (15% and 45% respectively) remained unexplained. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Importance of the field: Microneedles are small-scale devices that are finding use for transdermal delivery of protein-based pharmacologic agents and nucleic acid-based pharmacologic agents; however, microneedles prepared using conventional microelectronics-based technologies have several shortcomings, which have limited translation of these devices into widespread TH-302 clinical use.\n\nAreas covered in this review: Two-photon polymerization is a laser-based rapid prototyping technique that has been used recently for direct fabrication of hollow microneedles with a wide variety of geometries. In addition, an indirect rapid prototyping method that involves two-photon polymerization and polydimethyl siloxane micromolding has been used for fabrication of solid microneedles with exceptional mechanical properties.\n\nWhat see more the reader will gain: In
this review, the use of two-photon polymerization for fabricating in-plane and out-of-plane hollow microneedle arrays is described. The use of two-photon polymerization-micromolding for fabrication of solid microneedles is also reviewed. In addition, fabrication of microneedles with antimicrobial properties is discussed; antimicrobial microneedles may reduce the risk of infection associated with the formation of channels through the stratum corneum.\n\nTake home message: It is anticipated that the use of two-photon polymerization as well as two-photon polymerization-micromolding for fabrication of microneedles and other microstructured drug delivery devices will
increase over the coming years.”
“Extracranial and transcranial colour-cocled duplex GDC-0994 sonography (TCCD) are used routinely in clinical practice to assess physiologic and pathologic arterial blood flow to the brain. Such investigations are straightforward, safe, and cost effective, and can be repeated frequently for patient follow-up. In addition, the portability of extracranial colour-coded duplex sonography and TCCD provides the option of bedside investigations, particularly useful for evaluation of the critically ill patient. However, duplex ultrasound can be hampered by insufficient acoustic penetration, an unfavourable insonation angle, or by conditions of low or no flow. Echocontrast agents capable of surviving pulmonary and capillary transit have been developed, and such agents increase the Doppler signal and, therefore, the success rate of neurosonographic investigations. Approximately 20% of TCCD studies involve poor insonation conditions and, therefore, the use of echocontrast agents is of particular interest for this application.