1A and B). The flow rate was set at 1.5 L/min, which produced carbon monoxide (CO) levels ranging from 300 to 350 ppm and resulted in blood levels of carboxyhemoglobin of 10%. Forty-eight hours after the last challenge, the animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg i.p.), and a tracheotomy was performed. The mice were
then connected to a ventilator for small animals (flexiVent, Scireq, Quebec, Canada) with the tidal volume and frequency set at 20 mL/kg and 2 Hz, respectively. After 1 min, the animals were paralyzed with pancuronium bromide (1 mg/kg), and the anesthetic level was checked during the entire procedure. Oscillatory lung mechanic measurements were performed to obtain www.selleckchem.com/products/i-bet151-gsk1210151a.html airway resistance (Raw), small airway resistance (Gtis) and tissue elastance (Htis) (Hantos et al., 1992). Different methacholine concentrations, ranging from 6 to 50 mg/mL, were delivered by an ultrasonic device over 1 min (Respira Max, NS, LTDA, Sao Paulo, Brazil). After 30 s, respiratory mechanics data were collected. A response curve for bronchial responsiveness was
performed immediately after the methacholine challenge, and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and blood were collected. The animals were selleckchem euthanized by rapid exsanguination via the abdominal aorta while anesthetized. Total serum IgE was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Pharmingen, San Diego, CA) following the manufactureŕs protocol. The lungs were gently lavaged with 3 instillations of 0.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2) via tracheal cannula. Total cells were counted in a Neubaueŕs hemocytometer chamber. Differential cell counts of 300 cells/animal were Metalloexopeptidase obtained after Diff Quick staining of BALF prepared on slides. All measurements were taken in a blinded fashion. A mouse 7-Plex cytokine assay kit (Millipore Laboratories, Inc., Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) was used to test samples for the presence of 7 cytokines. The assay was read on the Bio-Plex suspension array system. The data were normalized
to the amount of input tissue. The right lungs were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. Five-micrometer-thick sections were stained with picrosirius red (PS) for collagen fibers. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed with anti-IL4, anti-IL-5, anti-IL-10 and anti-TGF-β antibodies (Santa Cruz, CA), as previously described (de Magalhães Simoes et al., 2005). Measurements of collagen content and IHC-positive cells were performed with imaging analysis software (Image-Pro Plus, 126.96.36.199 for Windows, Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD) on images acquired from a light microscope with a digital camera connected to a computer (Leica DMR; Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany). Analyses were made from five images of a transversally cut airway and its adjacent vascular structure.