The clarity of the paste or gel can vary from clear to opaque, an

The clarity of the paste or gel can vary from clear to opaque, and this property is related

to light dispersion resulting from the association of amylose and other components present in the starch (Karam, 2003). The increasing demand for new products has imposed to food industry the use of starches with characteristics such as absence of syneresis, transparency, stability and solubility to cold, which added to the restrictions on the use of chemically modified starches have directed researches for new sources of native starches with characteristics physico-chemical differentiated. The literature provides little information about the isolation and properties of starches from unconventional

sources such as fruit seeds. Studies on the functional properties Galunisertib solubility dmso of starch extracted from these seeds, including jackfruit seeds, have been conducted to verify its applicability in food, pharmaceutics and other uses and to replace with less costs commercial sources of starch (Aldana et al., 2011, Bello-Perez et al., 2006, Lawal and Adebowale, 2005 and Mukprasit and Sajjaanantakul, 2004). However, the jackfruit seeds could be found in soft and hard varieties, which have direct influences in properties of their starch. Still, climate and soil conditions, where the jackfruit is grown, could result in different chemical composition, consequently, have influence in functional properties (Aldana et al., 2011 and Bello-Perez et al., 2006). The present study characterised for the first time GDC-0199 in vivo starch extracted from two Brazilian jackfruit seeds varieties (hard and soft), focusing in the physicochemical, morphological and functional properties to determine its applicability in the food industry. Jackfruit seeds (A. heterophyllus L.) (soft and hard) were extracted from mature fruits purchased from a local market in João Pessoa city, Paraíba State, Brazil. The brown PLEKHB2 spermoderm covering the

cotyledons was removed by immersing jackfruit seeds in a 5% sodium hydroxide solution, followed by washing with running water. The starch was extracted from the cotyledons. The extraction of starch from hard and soft jackfruit seeds was conducted according to the slightly modified methodology of Loos, Hood, and Graham (1981). First, seeds were removed from pulp, peeled, cut into small pieces and allowed to soak for 24 h in a sodium metabisulphite solution (0.2%). Starch was extracted by grinding the raw material with sodium metabisulphite in a regular blender at low speed for 30 min. After homogenisation, the mixture was processed through a 200 mesh sieve (0.074 mm). The samples were then decanted twice for 24 h, with resuspension in sodium metabisulphite and centrifugation at 5000 rpm/15 min between each decanting; the supernatants of both were discarded.

Samples were also analysed by HPLC to identify individual phenoli

Samples were also analysed by HPLC to identify individual phenolic PF 2341066 compounds (Fig. 1). Anthocyanins, flavonol derivatives (quercetin and kaempferol), catechin and epicatechin monomeric flavanols, t-resveratrol and gallic acid were detected and quantified ( Table

2). The data obtained showed differences in the concentration of total anthocyanins for the different varieties, as expected. The values, which ranged from 496.61 to 2917.50 mg/100 g, were 2.1 to 2.7 times greater than those obtained using the pH-differential method described above. This trend has been observed before (Lee, Rennaker, & Wrolstad, 2008), where samples were analysed with the same methods used in this study (pH-differential method and HPLC). As reported by Lee et al. (2008), reversed-phase HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection is the technique which has been most widely used for the identification and quantification of anthocyanins. However, HPLC can result in an underestimation of the amount of anthocyanin present in samples that contain different anthocyanidin glycosides

when using one standard for quantification. Another study, which evaluated anthocyanins and flavonols in grape pomace of different varieties produced in Italy (Ruberto et al., 2007) using HPLC–UV–DAD and HPLC–MS–ESI, found values of total anthocyanins ranging from 375 to 4527 mg/100 g. Regarding the flavonols quantified in the grape pomace extracts, the highest concentrations of rutin, other quercetin derivatives and kaempferol derivatives were observed for the Merlot variety (56.65, SP600125 cost 41.43 and 15.09 mg/100 g, respectively). The monomeric flavanol catechin was the most abundant non-anthocyanic compound identified in the grape pomace, reaching a value of 150.16 mg/100 g. In general, as described by other authors (Montealegre, Peces, Vozmediano, Gascueña, & Romero, 2006), the phenolic content in the case of grape seeds consists almost exclusively of flavan-3-ols such as catechin, which may explain the significant amounts noted herein. It is Staurosporine cost worth highlighting that some other phenolic compounds, not

quantified due to the lack of standards, were present in the grape pomace, probably mostly proanthocyanidins, commonly present as oligomers and polymers of polyhydroxy flavan-3-ols such as (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin, and many in the form of gallate esters or glycosides (Brannan, 2008). The presence of t-resveratrol, chemically known as trans-3,5,4´-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, was expected. It is a phytoalexin and has been identified in more than 70 plant species including grapes, peanuts, fruits, red wine and mulberries. However, grape skin is a particularly good source of resveratrol as the fresh skin contains around 50–100 μg/g, while in red wine concentrations range from 1.5 to 3.0 mg/L ( Baliga & Katiyar, 2006).

Five sub-fractions (GE8–10 A–E) were obtained from GE8–10 (12 1 g

Rh4 (17) (5 mg, Rt = 19.1 min) was isolated from GE8–10 B, and 20(S)-Rh2 (1) (300 mg, Rt = 5.7 min) and 20(R)-Rh2 (2) (210 mg, Rt = 6.1 min) were isolated from GE8–10 C by preparative HPLC (MeCN:H2O = 55:45, 13 mL/min). The mixtures of 25-hydroxy-Rh4

(20) (35 mg, Rt = 11.1 min), 20S/R-Rh1 (9, 10) (90 mg, Rt = 13.2 min), 25-hydroxy-20(S)-Rh2 (7) (28 mg, Rt = 23.1 min), and 25-hydroxy-20(R)-Rh2 (8) (100 mg, Rt = 23.3 min)

were prepared from GE12–14 (8.2 g) and were isolated by RP silica gel CC (10 × 3 cm; MeOH:H2O = 7:3, 4 L) followed by preparative HPLC (MeCN:H2O = 50:50, 70:30, 13 mL/min). BAY 73-4506 order GE15–18 Selleckchem CP-690550 (10.1 g) were subjected to RP silica gel CC (MeOH:H2O = 6:4, 4 L) to give five sub-fractions (GE15–18 A–E). 20S-AcetylRg2 (15) (15 mg, Rt = 24.7 min) and 20R-AcetylRg2 (16) (8 mg, Rt = 25.1 min) were isolated from GE15–18 B. Rk1 (19) (25 mg, Rt = 19.9 min) and Rg5 (18) (31 mg, Rt = 20.3 min) were obtained from GE15–18 D by preparative HPLC (MeOH:H2O = 7:3, 10 mL/min), respectively. 20(S/R)-Rg2 (11, 12) (50 mg), 20(S)-Rg3 (3) (400 mg), and 20(R)-Rg3 (4) (400 mg) were obtained from GE19–20 (8.1 g) sub-fractions by RP silica gel CC (10 × 3 cm) with a mixture of MeOH:H2O (3:1, 5 L). 20(S)-Rg2 (11) (10 mg, Rt = 13.1 min) and 20(R)-Rg2 (12) (15 mg, Rt = 13.4 min) were purified using preparative HPLC (MeCN:H2O = 35:65, 10 mL/min). GE21–22 (3.1 g) sub-fractions were further isolated to give the mixture of 25-hydroxy-20(S/R)-Rh1 (13, 14) (30 mg). The structures of compounds 1–21 were unequivocally determined by comparing the one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectrometry and mass spectrometry

data with previously published values. These were: 20(S)-ginsenosides Rh2 (1) [14], 20(R)-Rh2 (2) [15], 20(S)-Rg3 (3) [16], 20(R)-Rg3 (4) [16], 6′-O-acetyl-20(S)-Rh2 (20(S)-AcetylRh2) (5) [16], 20(R)-AcetylRh2 (6) and 25-hydroxy-20(S)-Rh2 (7) [13], 25-hydroxy-20(R)-Rh2 (8) [13], 20(S)-Rh1 (9) [17], 20(R)-Rh1 (10) [17], 20(S)-Rg2 (11) [17], 20(R)-Rg2 (12) [18], 25-hydroxy-20(S)-Rh1 (13) [19], 25-hydroxy-20(R)-Rh1 (14) [19], 20(S)-AcetylRg2 (15) [20], Metformin mw 20(R)-AcetylRg2 (16) [20], Rk1 (17) [21], Rh4 (18) [17], 25-hydroxy-Rh4 (19) [18], Rg5 (20) [21], and oleanolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21) [22] ( Fig. 1). Of these compounds, compound 6 had not been reported previously. Compounds 5 and 6, and 13 and 14 were isolated as mixtures of the stereoisomers and were not purified to individual stereoisomers. Compounds 1–21 were categorized by their backbones (PPD type 1–6; PPD-derived type, 7, 8, 18, and 19; PPT type, 9–12, 15, and 16; PPT-derived type, 13, 14, and 17; and an oleanane-type triterpene, 21).

We then selected 1–30 retention trees according to these values (

We then selected 1–30 retention trees according to these values (highest values first). Finally, as a benchmark of using no information at all, we randomly selected 10,000 sets of a given

number of retention trees for each stand and computed the average performance related to each conservation goal over these 10,000 sets. The result of each tree selection strategy (score-based, diameter-based, score/diameter, optimal, and random) was evaluated as the cumulative number of species represented on the retention Dabrafenib mouse trees on the clearcut per level of cumulative cost. For individual species it was evaluated as the resulting cumulative probability of species occurrence on any of the retention trees on the clearcut, calculated from the model-averaged logistic regression equations. To determine the maximum value of information, i.e. trans-isomer in vitro the upper limit for how much

money (or time, if converted using standard labor costs) that maximally could be spent on surveying, we compared for each clearcut the different tree selection approaches to the random selection of trees. As the starting point for comparison, we used the number of species, or cumulative level of probability, respectively, reached when half of the trees (15 trees) were randomly selected, and we also computed the corresponding total cost of the 15 retained trees. We then computed the total cost and the number of trees Forskolin order needed to attain the same level of species representation, or cumulative probability of occurrence, with the other tree selection approaches. The difference in cost can thus be said to be the economic value of each

type of information, and thus, spending more than this amount on surveying and selecting trees would not be cost-effective relative to a random selection of retention trees. The value of information was also converted to maximum surveying time per clearcut and per hectare, in this case assuming a labor cost of 350 SEK/h (1 SEK = 0.11 EUR or 0.14 USD, January 2014) and an average size of a clearcut of 14 ha, as in this study. We found a total of 131 lichen species on the 360 aspen trees in all 12 clearcuts (see also Table 1). Of these, 11 were red-listed species and 12 were indicator species, summing to 22 species of conservation concern (one species (L. pulmonaria) belonged to both groups). The mean total species number per tree was 8.9, of which 2.2 were species of conservation concern. The corresponding figures per clearcut were 46.8 and 10.7. The four most common species of conservation concern, C. furfuraceum, L. impudens, L. saturninum, L. pulmonaria, analyzed separately in this study, were present on 17.8%, 19.2%, 76.7%, and 36.7% of the 360 trees in the study, respectively.

g on higher trees and trees located at stand edges may be explai

g. on higher trees and trees located at stand edges may be explained by three main non-exclusive hypotheses. The first

one (H2.1) is that PPM female moths are rather unselective when ovipositionning as suggested by Hódar et al. (2002). As imagos usually emerge from the soil outside pine stands, female pine processionary moths find more would just by chance first encounter edge trees or be intercepted by trees with larger crown. According to this hypothesis, the within stand distribution of PPM nests may simply result from passive interception of gravid females by particular trees. Alternatively (H2.2), a better survival of eggs and larvae on taller trees or on trees located at stand edges may be expected because they would benefit from more sunshine and then higher

temperatures in winter, thus leading Roxadustat to better conditions for development (Battisti et al., 2013). The last hypothesis (H2.3) is that the probability of an individual tree being attacked by the PPM would result from an active PPM female choice for more apparent trees, either due to their location at stand edge (Dulaurent et al., 2012) or their higher height. The edge effect on PPM infestation can account to both “random interception” and “active host selection” hypotheses (H2.1) and (H2.3). Pérez-Contreras and Tierno de Figueroa (1997) showed that the number of PPM egg batches increased with pine height and was significantly different between the two pine species (Pinushalepensis and P. pinaster) in mixture. More recently Pérez-Contreras et al. (2014) showed again that, independently of the pupation site, gravid females of pine processionary moth

were able to choose for ovipositionning between two host pine species (P. halepensis and P. pinaster), even if these pine species were randomly distributed within a stand. Although these findings indicate that females can discriminate and actively select their host between two pine species, they do not bring information on female selection amongst individual pines of the same species. Therefore, despite a partial support for H2.3 (i.e. active host selection), the alternative hypothesis not (random interception H2.1) cannot be fully discarded. Further experiment should focus on female flight behavior during the oviposition period in order to arbitrate between these two hypotheses (H2.1 vs. H2.3). The main reason put forward for the lower mortality of PPM on taller trees and/or trees located at the stand edge (H2.2) is that they receive more sunshine, resulting in a more favorable microclimate for the offspring (Battisti et al., 2005, Battisti et al., 2013 and Buffo et al., 2007). PPM larvae are thought to prefer spinning their nests on parts of the tree crown exposed to sunshine, where they can absorb warmth and are likely to be more resistant to low winter temperatures (Geri, 1980, Geri, 1984 and Hoch et al., 2009). In our experiment, we found no significant difference in egg survival, in relation to distance from stand edge.

While DBT phone coaching serves the important function of providi

While DBT phone coaching serves the important function of providing after-hours consultation

to clients, it is not expected that a therapist be immediately available always. In fact, being immediately available may actually reinforce passive dependent behaviors (Manning, 2011). Furthermore, occasions may occur when the therapist is in a location where confidentiality cannot be assured or perhaps the therapist has their own crisis to manage at that particular moment. An important aspect of orienting a client to phone coaching is communicating to your client what they can expect if a clinician is LY294002 not available at the time they call. As demonstrated in the video, when unavailable the therapist can place a brief call to the client explaining that they cannot learn more coach right in that moment and provide information as to when the client can expect a call back. In the interim, clients should be instructed to use their skills. During the orientation therapists should instruct their clients that if they feel that they cannot keep themselves safe they should call 911. Most important, clients should also be informed about the clinician’s personal limits around telephone contact. In DBT each therapist is asked to observe their own personal limits. While all DBT clinicians need to be able to observe their

own limits, they must also make a good-faith effort to be available to their clients. Bongar (1991) has suggested that those individuals who work with suicidal clients need to make them available after hours. DBT takes this commitment very seriously. Being available during weekends is particularly

important as this is often a high-crisis time period for clients. Thus, individuals who aspire to be DBT therapists must be certain that providing after-hours phone coaching is within their own personal limits. Therefore, some individuals on a DBT team may find that they have broader limits (e.g., access to their therapist anytime) whereas others may set firmer limits around this (e.g., turning a pager off at 10:00 p.m.). Different therapists having different limits can result in discourse among 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase clients. Sometimes clients are angry or hurt that their therapist’s pager is turned off at 8:00 p.m. when another therapist leaves their pager on all night. In DBT, this is explained to clients by describing the third therapist consultation agreement, titled, the consistency agreement. The consistency agreement states that the role of the treatment team is not to provide consistency for each and every client. In fact, consistency is rarely found in the real world. Thus, differences and inconsistencies in limits among therapists are viewed as an opportunity to generalize DBT skills to the natural environment. An important aspect of phone coaching is to shape clients into skill use. One way to do this is to insist that clients use two DBT skills prior to calling.

The many who have been infected and fortunately survived are no l

The many who have been infected and fortunately survived are no less worthy of mention. Khan’s brother Sahid has stated “My sincere prayer is that his death will not be in vain,” a wish undoubtedly shared by his family, friends and colleagues. Khan and Fonnie would certainly have agreed that, if anything good can come from this tragedy, it is that we must emerge with more options, more hope, for future victims of EVD and other dangerous diseases in West Africa. If there is a silver lining, it is that the outbreak has pushed this terrible disease to the forefront of attention of the lay and scientific communities, prompting accelerated research and development of promising

treatments and vaccines. The availability of effective therapeutics would have an effect far beyond decreases in morbidity and mortality, especially given the unprecedented resistance, sometimes

violent, GPCR Compound Library supplier see more of local populations to case isolation and contact tracing (Fauci, 2014). Such therapies would serve as public health tools, replacing the “stick” of confinement in an isolation center with the “carrot” of treatment on a hospital ward; instead of trying to convince people to be isolated, they will be knocking on the door to be tested, because they will know there is a cure. Even better, we can imagine a scenario, somewhat akin to the response to a yellow fever epidemic, in which the confirmation of a case of EVD is met with a prompt vaccination campaign in the area of risk and the outbreak rapidly aborted. The present epidemic of EVD is the largest ever recorded. We can make sure that such an outbreak never happens again. Beyond specific treatments and vaccines, the extensive economic and societal impacts of the EVD outbreak in West Africa

will require a veritable “Marshall Plan” to set the region again on the path to recovery, at a minimum in the domain of provision of health services and advancement of scientific research. The death of Khan and so many other healthcare workers represents much more than a tragic next personal loss; their absence threatens to severely undermine the region’s ability to combat a host of serious diseases, including such killers as malaria, acute respiratory and enteric disease, HIV/AIDS, and malnutrition. West Africa will need extensive international support to rebuild the healthcare infrastructure and to create stable job and training opportunities and safe working environments to foster the development of local expertise to help fill the role vacated by the death of Khan and his colleagues. The immediate focus will, of course, be the fight to control and better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of EVD, but the approach must ultimately be broader.

Generally, beach violations during a swim season were below 15% o

Generally, beach violations during a swim season were below 15% of all samples collected until 1990 and then violations began increasing to approximately 20%. Wastewater and stormwater infrastructure changes, precipitation and lake see more levels were likely associated with these trends and further analyses are warranted. Human health in relation to the LSC water quality is possibly one of the most pressing issues that demands better understanding of the linkages in the CHANS framework. Generally, LSC was and still is considered to have high water quality (David et al., 2009, Herdendorf et al., 1993, Leach, 1972, Leach, 1991 and Vanderploeg et al.,

2002) because of the large input (98%) of Lake Huron water via the St. Clair River which has low nutrient concentrations. For example, the mean total phosphorus concentration was 9.10 μg L− 1 (± 0.51 std. err, n = 85) PS-341 and the mean total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration was 183.5 μg L− 1 (± 8.0 std. err, n = 85) from samples collected near the mouth of St. Clair River between 1998 and 2008 (data source: Michigan Department of Environmental Quality). Any future changes to Lake Huron will have a direct impact on LSC (Leach, 1972). Runoff from agricultural activity in the LSC watershed, especially from the eastern and western rivers (e.g. Clinton, Sydenham, and Thames) is the

major source of nutrients into the lake and the longer resident time of the southeastern water mass compared to the northwestern promotes higher biological production (Leach, 1972, Leach, 1973 and Leach, 1991). Past studies indicate four rivers, the Thames and Sydenham Rivers in Ontario

and the Clinton and Black rivers in Michigan contributed Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase significantly to the non-point source nutrient pollution (Lang et al., 1988 and Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channel Management Committee, 1988). A model analysis of average total phosphorus loads to LSC indicated that the average phosphorus load inputs equaled the outputs during their 1975–1980 period and suggested that the lake was not acting as a sink for phosphorus (Lang et al., 1988). An updated analysis is needed for the current contributions of point and nonpoint phosphorus loading into and out of LSC. PCBs, organochlorine insecticides, DDT, and mercury were released from historic chemical–industrial sources located on the major tributaries, such as St. Clair River that drain to LSC (Fimreite et al., 1971, Gewurtz et al., 2007 and Leach, 1991). The LSC fishery closed from 1970 to 1980 when high levels of mercury were discovered in fish tissues and the low economic returns prevented a rebound in the commercial fishery (Leach, 1991). In the early 1980s lead, cadmium, and octachlorostyrene were found in clams that were downstream from the St. Clair River suggesting it was a primary source of these contaminants (Great Lakes Institute, 1986, Leach, 1991 and Pugsley et al., 1985). The Clinton River was also found to be a source of PCBs in clams during this study.

The Gorge Dam Pool sediment load record reflects impacts from a v

The Gorge Dam Pool sediment load record reflects impacts from a variety of sources. The mass of sediment retained each year in the Gorge Dam pool (see Section 4.3) provides an estimate of the variation in the Middle Cuyahoga River sediment load

(Fig. 9). Indirect evidence suggests that the Gorge Dam effectively traps the river’s sediment load. Downstream KPT-330 in vivo of the dam, the channel is sediment-starved and floored by bedrock and boulders. However, between the dam and the Front St. Bridge, the impoundment is deep and wide, allowing for continued mud deposition (Fig. 2 and Fig. 5). In fact, thick mud accumulation has also occurred mid-pool where the water area is less than at the core C4 reach (Fig. 5). The extremely Talazoparib nmr high sediment

load prior to 1928 is interpreted with caution, because the age model was interpolated between the 1928 210Pb age with large error bars and age of dam construction (Fig. 7). However, events at this time may have contributed to increased sediment loads. First, accompanying the construction of the dam were additional large construction projects on the banks of the dam pool to install power plants (Whitman et al., 2010, p. 80). Second, a large flood in 1913 breached the upstream Le Fever Dam (Raub, 1984) and released of some of its impounded sediment (Kasper, 2010 and Peck and Kasper, 2013). The sharp decline in sediment load at 1928 is an artifact of the age model. From the 1940s to the 1960s sediment load increased at the same time the City of Cuyahoga Falls experienced tremendous population growth in the post World War II years (Fig. 9). Visual examination of topographic maps shows growing networks of streets upstream of the impoundment as suburban developments were constructed. This increased development of the watershed could increase the river’s sediment

load (Fig. 9). Since the 1950s, expanding suburbanization is illustrated in the population growth further upstream in Stow Township (Fig. 9). This development corresponds to a general increase in impoundment sediment accumulation O-methylated flavonoid toward the present day (Fig. 9). We interpret the substantial sediment load increases between 2004 and 2008 and again in 2011 as the result of an increase in extreme flow events (Fig. 9). Five of the top ten floods recorded on the 87-year-long Old Portage stream gauge, downstream of the dam, occurred in 2003, 2004, 2005 and twice in 2011 (NOAA, 2012). These extreme flow events are effective at eroding and transporting sediment. The removal of the upstream Munroe Falls Dam in September 2005, allowed its impounded sediment to be eroded and transported downstream (Rumschlag and Peck, 2007). The greatest amount of erosion and transport from the former Munroe Falls impoundment occurred between 2005 and 2008 although the Le Fever Dam impoundment traps much of this sediment (Kasper, 2010 and Peck and Kasper, 2013).

, 2008, Rick et al , 2009b and Rick, 2013) Fig 2a documents the

, 2008, Rick et al., 2009b and Rick, 2013). Fig. 2a documents the Selleck SP600125 timing of some human ecological events on the Channel Islands relative to human population densities. We can say with confidence that Native Americans

moved island foxes between the northern and southern Channel Islands ( Collins, 1991 and Vellanoweth, 1998) and there is growing evidence that humans initially introduced mainland gray foxes to the northern islands ( Rick et al., 2009b). Genetic, stable isotope, and other studies are under way to test this hypothesis. Another island mammal, Peromyscus maniculatus, appears in the record on the northern Channel Islands about 10,000 years ago, some three millennia after initial human occupation, and was a likely stowaway in human canoes ( Walker, 1980, Wenner and Johnson, 1980 and Rick, 2013). On the northern Channel Islands, Peromyscus nesodytes, a larger deer mouse had colonized the learn more islands prior to human arrival, sometime during the Late Pleistocene. The two species of mice co-existed for millennia until the Late Holocene when P. nesodytes went extinct, perhaps related to interspecific competition with P. manicualtus and changing island habitats

( Ainis and Vellanoweth, 2012 and Rick et al., 2012a). Although extinction or local extirpation of island mammals and birds is a trend on the Channel Islands, these declines appear to be less frequent and dramatic Tacrolimus (FK506) than those documented on Pacific and Caribbean Islands, a pattern perhaps related to the absence of agriculture on the Channel Islands and lower levels of landscape clearance and burning (Rick et al., 2012a). Fires have been documented on the Channel Islands during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene (Anderson et al., 2010b and Rick et al., 2012b), but we are just beginning to gain an understanding of burning by the Island Chumash. Ethnographic sources document burning by Chumash peoples on the mainland (Timbrook et al., 1982), but say little about the islands. Anderson et al. (2010b) recently presented a Holocene record

of fire history on Santa Rosa Island, which suggests a dramatic increase in burning during the Late Holocene (∼3000 years ago), attributed to Native American fires. Future research should help document ancient human burning practices and their influence on island ecosystems. For now, we can say that the Island Chumash strongly influenced Channel Island marine and terrestrial ecosystems for millennia. The magnitude of these impacts is considerably less dramatic than those of the ensuing Euroamerican ranching period (Erlandson et al., 2009), a topic we return to in the final section. Archeological and paleoecological records from islands provide context and background for evaluating the Anthropocene concept, determining when this proposed geological epoch may have begun, and supplying lessons for modern environmental management.