In situ probing revealed that thermo-adaptive mechanisms shaping

In situ probing revealed that thermo-adaptive mechanisms shaping the 16S rRNA gene may affect the identification of thermophilic microorganisms. The novel developed FISH probe extends the possibility

to study the widespread thermophilic syntrophic interaction of Coprothermobacter spp. with hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea, whose establishment is a great benefit for the whole anaerobic system. “
“In this study, the influence of the size and surface termination of diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) on their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was assessed. The average size and distribution of DNPs were determined by dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction techniques. R788 chemical structure The chemical composition of the DNPs studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that DNPs > 5 nm and oxidized particles have a higher oxygen content. The antibacterial potential of DNPs was assessed by the viable count method. In general, E. coli exhibited a higher sensitivity Z-VAD-FMK solubility dmso to DNPs than B. subtilis. However, in the presence of all the DNPs tested, the B. subtilis colonies exhibited altered size and morphology. Antibacterial activity was influenced not only by DNP concentration but also by DNP size and form. Whereas untreated 5-nm DNPs were the most

effective against E. coli, the antibacterial activity of 18–50-nm DNPs was higher against B. subtilis. Transmission electron microscopy showed that DNPs interact with the bacterial surface, probably affecting vital cell functions. We propose that DNPs interfere with the permeability of the bacterial cell wall and/or membrane and hinder B. subtilis colony aminophylline spreading. “
“Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein present in all eukaryotes. Cellular functions of TCTP include growth promoting, allergic response and responses to various cellular stresses,

but the functions in filamentous fungi have not been reported. In this report, we characterized an Aspergillus nidulans TCTP (TcpA) with high similarity to TCTP. The level of tcpa mRNA was relatively high, both during vegetative growth stage and at early phases of development. TcpA was found predominantly in the nucleus during germination and mycelial growth, and was localized in cytoplasm and nuclei of vesicles on stipes during conidia development. Deletion of tcpA resulted in abnormal hyphal branch formation during vegetative growth. The tcpA deletion inhibited sexual development, but enhanced asexual development via induction of brlA expression. These results imply that TcpA is involved in normal hyphal branch establishment during vegetative growth and also has a role in the balance between asexual and sexual differentiation.

Furthermore, this association was not significant in the small (n

Furthermore, this association was not significant in the small (n = 82) group of high frequency, high duration (>6 trips per year and >5 d per trip) travelers. All groups of travelers, except for the high frequency, high duration group, had lower blood pressure than those who did not travel

at all. There was a considerable dose-response trend with frequent (>6 times/y) international travelers having an OR for hypertension of 0.34 (95% CI = 0.17–0.61). Self-reported systolic and diastolic blood pressure was quantified and if either (systolic or diastolic) met these criteria, the subject was classified as hypertensive. Several negative associations were observed between frequency and duration of travel and self-reported measures

selleck screening library of health status and lifestyle choices. Although there was one exception, the high frequency, high duration Ixazomib purchase cohort did not show any significance for any of the health measures because this group contained a small number of business travelers (n = 82); statistically, it may not have been a large enough sample size to offset the zero travel group it was compared to. All other groups of international business travelers had a higher OR of alcohol consumption over the recommended limit4 (1–2 drink equivalents per day for men and 1 per day for women), with the high frequency, low duration travel group having the highest OR of 1.63 (95% CI = 1.06–2.05). Those who traveled less frequently and had low travel duration had an OR 1.24 (95% CI = 1.09–1.41) of failing to get the recommended amount of sleep (8 h per night; average of 7–9 h for adults),5 as

compared to their non-traveling peers; the high frequency travel group with the same duration showed an even greater Bupivacaine OR of 1.56 (95% CI = 1.04–2.43) having a sleep deficit. International business travelers also reported a lack of confidence in their continued ability to keep up with the pace of work; there was also a notable dose response observed with the highest odds observed among the high frequency, short duration group OR 2.32 (95% CI = 1.45–3.55). Again, frequency of travel, as opposed to duration of travel, was the most significant driver associated with these adverse health effects. A wide variety of health outcomes and healthy behaviors were similar between all traveler subgroups and the control group. Self-reported overall health status and specific conditions such as back pain and migraine headaches were no different between groups. Healthy behaviors such as adequate physical activity (3–5X/wk 30 min sessions) and adherence to a low-fat diet were similar between groups. Satisfaction with life, work, and physical health status (eg, inconsistent physical activity and high total cholesterol levels) did not differ significantly between groups (Travelers vs non-travelers). Little is known about the impact of frequent or prolonged travel on the perceived health status, lifestyle choices, and personal risks of travelers.

Two plasmids

Two plasmids Selisistat molecular weight were constructed to complement this mutant. Because promoters of B. burgdorferi often overlap the preceding ORF (Cabello et al., 2006), one of these, pAB63 (Fig. 1b), contained both the

uvrABbu ORF and the 504 bp upstream of the translational start of uvrA. The other, pMS9 (Fig. 1b), contained the uvrABbu ORF under the control of the borrelial flaB promoter. Electroporation of these plasmids and the pKFSS1 vector control into B. burgdorferiΔuvrABbu, followed by selection and passaging yielded clones containing both full-length and disrupted uvrABbu (Fig. S1a) that expressed uvrA mRNA transcripts (Fig. S1a). Reactions performed without reverse transcriptase showed no amplicons and confirmed the lack of DNA contamination in total RNA samples (data not shown). UV irradiation damages

DNA by generating intrachain thymine dimers (Black et al., 1998; Aertsen et al., 2004; Fry et al., 2005; Maul & Sutton, 2005). Exposure of the parental strain to 800 and 1000 μJ cm−2 of UV radiation had little effect on its survival, while exposure of ΔuvrABbu or its derivative containing only the pKFSS1 cloning vector to these doses resulted in complete loss of viability (Fig. 2a and b). Significant complementation of the phenotypic defect of the inactivation mutant was obtained with both pAB63 and pMS9 (P<0.001). The inability of the inactivation mutant to survive UV radiation was partially corrected by pAB63 (uvrABbu and 504 bp 5′ up to the uvrABbu start codon, Fig. 2a) and fully corrected by pMS9 (Fig. 2b). This indicates that the uvrABbu gene product is involved in the ability of B. burgdorferi MG 132 to repair click here intrachain DNA damage. MMC, a nucleotide-akylating agent, cross-links DNA (Iyer & Szybalski, 1963). Bacterial mutants with various defects in DNA repair have been found to be more susceptible to growth inhibition by this agent than are wild type (Bijlsma et al., 2000; Liveris et al., 2004). In the absence of MMC, wild type, the ΔuvrABbu inactivation mutant and its pAB63 (not shown), pMS9 or pKFSS1 derivatives (Fig. 3a) grew equally well in complete BSK-H. All strains reached log-phase

density (about 108 cells mL−1) by day 4 of culture. In the presence of MMC, the growth of ΔuvrABbu was significantly (P<0.001) inhibited [concentrations examined: 0.1 μg mL−1 (data not shown), 1 μg mL−1 (data not shown), 5 μg mL−1 (Fig. 3b), 10 μg mL−1 (Fig. 3c)]. This growth inhibition was reversed by extrachromosomal complementation of ΔuvrABbu with pMS9 (uvrABbu under the control of flaBp) but not with the cloning vector pKFSS1 (Fig. 3b and c). Similar results were obtained using pAB63 (uvrABbu under the control of 504 upstream nucleotides) to complement ΔuvrABbu (data not shown). This indicates that the uvrABbu gene product is involved in repair of interchain repair of DNA damage in B. burgdorferi, in striking difference to the situation in E.

If this happens, the lesions have to be drained Post-operative i

If this happens, the lesions have to be drained. Post-operative instruction must highlight that the patients should not bite, rub, or traumatize their lip while under the effect of local anaesthesia. The main benefits of local anaesthesia are that it maintains airway patency and

provides prolonged post-operative pain relief. Examples of successful treatments provided under local anaesthesia include multiple extractions, implants, root canal treatment, and restorations6,16,23. Some authors suggest that less mucosal damage is produced when patients are treated under local anaesthesia when compared to general anaesthesia. When planning a procedure under general anaesthesia, the patient’s selleck products MD/GP should be consulted13. The availability of an anaesthetic team with experience in EB is crucial. If this is not available, the use of local anaesthesia should be considered. Treatment under general anaesthesia allows the provision of extensive reconstructive dental treatment and multiple extractions regardless of the severity of soft tissue fragility and microstomia present5,7. The fact that the patient will be asleep, however, does not mean that the procedure will be easy to perform. Patients with severe fragility will still develop intra-operative generalized mucosal

sloughing secondary to retraction and minor trauma of the procedure itself1,7,36. Oral surgery and restorative procedures can be combined with other surgical procedures, as for example, oesophageal dilatation1. As stated previously, a water-soluble lubricant should be used instead of petrolatum in the operating Alectinib chemical structure room because it is not flammable. A preventive protocol is today’s dental management approach of choice1,2. Patients with EB should be referred to the dentist for the first consultation at the age of 3–6 months. Tooth brushing is possible in all patients with EB, even in patients with

the severe generalized RDEB subtype. The following suggestions can help determine the appropriate toothbrush for each patient: (a)  Small head5,7,8,11,13. Gentle and careful ultrasonic scaler and polish techniques can be used in all patients, including severe RDEB11. Topical applications of high-dose fluoride varnish are suggested every 3 months in patients with high caries risk medroxyprogesterone or at each dental visit5,7,19. For children resident in nonfluoridated communities, the importance of daily fluoride supplements has been highlighted10. A dietary caries-prevention programme should be instigated at early age16,18. It is essential that dentists and nutritionists collaborate on an appropriate programme for each patient, as opposed to giving contradictory advice that may confuse patients and parents/guardians. Patients with severe generalized RDEB should perform daily exercises to improve/maintain a good mouth opening. This can be performed, for example, during dressing changes.

Polyketides can

Polyketides can also be extracted from different algae, dinoflagellates and plants (Hopwood & Sherman, 1990; Austin & Noel, 2003), for which those compounds apparently serve as defensive substances against natural enemies (Manojlovic et al., 2000; Choi et al., 2004).

The probably most diverse group of polyketide producers are marine organisms like sponges, tunicates, and bryozoans. Such animals are a source of natural compounds with strong cytotoxic properties that are extremely interesting from a medical point of view (Piel, 2004, 2006; Moore, 2005, 2006; Piel et al., 2005). These substances belong to the pederin family, which currently comprises 36 members from eight different invertebrate animal genera (Narquizian & Kocienski, 2000; Simpson et al., 2000; Vuong et al., 2001; Paul et al., 2002). FG-4592 purchase Polyketides are produced by hitherto uncultured, highly adapted bacterial endosymbionts. Cultivation of the pederin-producing bacterial endosymbionts of female Paederus rove beetles is not yet possible, and although chemical synthesis of pederin has been successfully reported by some groups

(Matsuda et al., 1988; Kocienski et al., 2000; Takemura et al., 2002; Jewett & Rawal, 2007), its low availability represents a serious impediment to drug development (Munro et al., 1999; Piel, 2002, 2004, 2006). Thus, tools are required for custom tailoring growth media for the enrichment and isolation of Paederus endosymbionts. Kellner (1999, 2001a, b, 2002a) demonstrated that a Pseudomonas-like endosymbiont is associated with the transfer of pederin production capabilities to the female progeny of Paederus beetles via endosymbiont-harbouring eggs. Analysis of metagenomic DNA from Paederus fuscipes beetles revealed the existence of a mixed modular polyketide synthase (pks)-gene cluster that is responsible for pederin biosynthesis (Piel, 2002). Specific PCR primers were designed from conserved regions of single cluster modules and utilized for the amplification of pks-gene fragments from endosymbionts in beetle or egg specimens (Piel, 2002).

However, direct evidence for the localization of Pseudomonas-like endosymbionts on eggs is lacking, and it is still unresolved, where such endosymbionts are located within Paederus beetles. FISH is an appropriate tool many for the in situ localization of specific phylogenetically defined groups of bacteria (Amann et al., 2001; Amann & Fuchs, 2008). Thus, the objectives were to (1) design and evaluate a specific 16S rRNA gene-targeted oligonucleotide probe for Pseudomonas-like Paederus riparius endosymbiont detection; (2) localize endosymbionts within serial egg thin-sections by FISH; and (3) determine where within the host symbionts are transferred to eggs by surface comparison of different egg stadiums using electron microscopy and pks-targeted PCR.

In Alberta, a total of 111 pharmacists were telephoned in order t

In Alberta, a total of 111 pharmacists were telephoned in order to achieve the target sample size of 100 (10 pharmacists declined participation because they reported that they did not have

enough time to participate, one pharmacist’s response was unusable). Out of the 100 community pharmacists who participated in the present study, 81 were based in an urban setting while the remaining 19 were based in a rural setting. The average Silmitasertib concentration number of years in practice was 15.0 years (range 1–50 years). A total of 76 pharmacists practised in chain pharmacies, while 24 pharmacists practised in independent pharmacies. A total of 278 discrete responses, to the second question in the interview, were provided by all the participants, with an average of 2.8 responses per participant. Out of these 278 responses, 29% were characterised as patient-centred, 45% were characterised as product-focused and 26% were characterised as ambiguous (see Table 2 for examples of responses for each of the categories). In Northern Ireland, a total of 135 pharmacists were telephoned, in order to achieve a sample size of 100 (35

pharmacists declined participation because they reported that they did not have enough time to participate). Out of the 100 community pharmacists who participated in the present study, 76 were based in an urban setting while the other 24 were based in a rural setting. The average number of years in practice was 12.3 years (range 1–40 years). A total of 38 pharmacists practised in multiple pharmacies, 17 pharmacists practised in small chains and 45 pharmacists practised in independent pharmacies. A total of 433 discrete responses, to the second question in the interview, were Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase provided by all the participants, with an average of 4.3 responses

per participant. Out of these 433 responses 40% were characterised as patient-centred, 39% were characterised as product-focused and 21% were characterised as ambiguous (see Table 2 for examples of responses for each of the categories). Community pharmacists in Northern Ireland provided more patient-centred responses than community pharmacists in Alberta (P = 0.013; chi-square test). Further statistical analyses did not show any significant differences between community pharmacist responses in Alberta and Northern Ireland with regard to the location of the pharmacy, the pharmacy type or years in practice. The word-cloud analysis (Figures 1 and 2) showed that ‘medicine’ and ‘dispense’ were the most frequently reported terms for both Alberta and Northern Ireland. This analysis also highlighted the relative lack of patient-care-related terms, suggesting that when it comes to the pharmacists’ practice in both Alberta and Northern Ireland patient care is still not their first priority.

2) Detailed spatial examination of the biofilms in 5-μm-thick se

2). Detailed spatial examination of the biofilms in 5-μm-thick sections revealed that the d-mannose-specific dissolution was largely confined to the 5 μm of the biofilm closest to the glass substratum where 40% of the initial biomass present was removed during a 150-min exposure (Fig. 2). To determine whether the d-mannose-induced dissolution was due to a specific interaction of this

carbohydrate with the MSHA pilus, 12-h biofilms of a ΔmshA mutant and of a ΔmxdB mutant were exposed for 2 h to LM medium containing 20 μM d-mannose. Representative images and quantitative data in Fig. 3 illustrate that the biofilm of the ΔmshA mutant accumulated biomass during the experimental timeframe, reflecting the retention and growth of cells, while a ΔmxdB mutant or a ΔmxdA (data not shown) mutant were highly sensitive to d-mannose addition, with 77% of the total cells removed. In contrast, the wild-type biofilms Temozolomide in this experiment lost only 34% of the total cells within

an equivalent distance from the substratum (Fig. 3). The fact Selleckchem Bioactive Compound Library that d-mannose treatment resulted in cell loss in the first few layers above the substratum suggests that in this region the association of cells to a biofilm is predominantly mediated by the MSHA pilus at this time point in biofilm formation. Addition of d-mannose to biofilms formed by the ΔpilT and ΔpilD mutants also did not result in biomass loss, consistent with the lack of an MSHA pilus (Fig. 3). However, other factors, such as mxdABCD, may dominate in biofilm regions further away from the substratum. These physiological data support the above-stated genetic hypothesis that wild-type biofilms are dominated by mshA-dependent and mshA-independent (i.e. Phloretin mxd-dependent) attachment mechanisms. The fact that complete removal of biomass was not observed in mxd mutant biofilms suggests that additional, mxd-independent factors may contribute to biofilm formation under those conditions, which can only be observed in this mutant background. The two dominant molecular attachment machineries that enable S. oneidensis MR-1 cells to adhere and colonize as

a biofilm on a surface in a hydrodynamic flow chamber in LM medium are determined by the mshA/pilDT and the mxd genes (Fig. 4). This grouping into these two biofilm-mediating mechanisms is based on genetic and physiological data: mutants carrying double deletions in mxdA or mxdB and either mshA, pilD, or pilT genes do not form biofilms; Δmxd mutant biofilms are more sensitive than the wild type to d-mannose addition, while ΔmshA, ΔpilT, and ΔpilD mutant biofilms are insensitive (Fig. 3). From these findings as well as the double-mutant phenotypes, we concluded that the S. oneidensis mshA/pilDT and mxd genes form two complementary gene systems that govern biofilm formation under the conditions tested (Fig. 4). Interestingly, we found in our studies that, after 72 h of growth, flat ΔmxdB mutant biofilms occasionally contained discrete three-dimensional mounds of cells (R.M.

Twenty transtibial amputees (16 male) aged 601 years (range

Twenty transtibial amputees (16 male) aged 60.1 years (range

45–80 years), and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy adult controls were recruited. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation assessed corticomotor excitability. Two indices of corticomotor excitability were calculated. An index of corticospinal excitability (ICE) determined relative excitability of ipsilateral and contralateral corticomotor projections to alpha-motoneurons innervating the quadriceps muscle (QM) of NVP-LDE225 solubility dmso the amputated limb. A laterality index (LI) assessed relative excitability of contralateral projections from each hemisphere. Spatial-temporal gait analysis was performed to calculate step-time variability. Amputees had lower ICE values, indicating relatively greater excitability of ipsilateral corticomotor AZD1208 mouse projections than controls (P = 0.04). A lower ICE value was associated with increased step-time variability for amputated (P = 0.04) and non-amputated limbs (P = 0.02). This association suggests corticomotor projections

from ipsilateral M1 to alpha-motoneurons innervating the amputated limb QM may interfere with gait. Cortical excitability in amputees was not increased bilaterally, contrary to our hypothesis. There was no difference in excitability of contralateral M1 between amputees and controls (P = 0.10), and no difference in LI (P = 0.71). It appears both hemispheres control one QM, with predominance of contralateral corticomotor excitability in healthy adults. Following lower-limb amputation, putative ipsilateral corticomotor excitability is relatively increased in some amputees and may negatively impact on function. “
“The lack of axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system is in part attributable to the presence of inhibitory molecules present in the environment of injured axons such as the myelin-associated proteins Nogo-A and MAG and the repulsive guidance molecules Ephrins, Netrins and Semaphorins. In the present study, we hypothesized that EphA4 and one

of its potential binding partners EphrinA3 may participate in the inhibition of adult axon regeneration in the model of adult mouse optic nerve injury. Axonal regeneration was analysed in three dimensions after tissue clearing of EphA4 knockout (KO), EphrinA3 KO and wild-type (WT) optic nerves. By immunohistochemistry, EphA4 was highly expressed in Müller glia endfeet in the retina and in astrocytes in the retina and the optic nerve, while EphrinA3 was present in retinal ganglion cells and oligodendrocytes. Optic nerve crush did not cause expression changes. Significantly more axons grew in the crushed optic nerve of EphA4 KO mice than in WT or EphrinA3 KO animals. Single axon analysis revealed that EphA4 KO axons were less prone to form aberrant branching than axons in the other mouse groups.

A functional general stress response is probably needed in the ma

A functional general stress response is probably needed in the manure-amended soil environment and nutrient availability is not the most limiting factor. This has also been shown for the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas putida (Ramos-González & Molin, 1998). However, deletion and complementation studies should provide more evidence for the role of RpoS in the survival of E. coli O157 in manure-amended soil. In addition, the conditions for survival in non-amended soil might be completely different and the role of RpoS should be considered accordingly. Variation in

rpoS alleles has been observed among E. coli O157 isolates and it remains unclear which environment gives Copanlisib rise to and selects for rpoS mutants (Waterman & Small, 1996; Parker et al., 2012). None of the E. coli O157 strains isolated from the environment (from feral pig, river water, cow and pasture soil) and linked to the 2006 spinach-associated outbreak in the United

States showed mutations in the rpoS gene (Parker et al., 2012). In contrast, 3/3 clinical and 2/5 spinach isolates possessed mutations in the rpoS gene, produced signaling pathway lower levels of RpoS, showed decreased levels of rpoS-regulated genes, and showed impaired phenotypic resistance to low pH, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. Parker et al. (2012) suggested that bagged spinach could provide a niche for the rise and selection of rpoS mutants and that these mutants are merely maintained during passage through the human host. However, this suggestion is challenged by gene expression studies showing clear up-regulation of rpoS when associated with (injured) lettuce tissue, implying the need for a functional general stress response (Carey et al., 2009; Kyle et al., 2010; Fink et al., 2012). As the bovine intestine forms the principal reservoir of E. coli O157 and humans can be considered

a transient host with distinct gastrointestinal conditions, it DOCK10 was hypothesized that the human gut could provide a niche for the selection of rpoS mutants. Sequencing the structural part of the rpoS gene of 73 bovine, 29 food (23 meat, one lettuce and five endive isolates) revealed a skewed distribution of mutants among the different isolation sources. Bovine and food isolates had low numbers of mutants (0/73 and 2/29, respectively), while a relatively high number of mutants was observed among human isolates (28/85) (Table 2). A strong LSPA-6-specific distribution of rpoS(A543C) among the isolates was observed, with 100% of lineage I possessing rpoS(543A) whereas 100% of the lineage II strains had rpoS(543C). Lineage I/II were either rpoS(543A) or rpoS(543C): bovine strains, 44.8% rpoS(543A) and 55.2% rpoS(543C); food strains, 26.7% rpoS(543A) and 73.3% rpoS(543C); human clinical strains, 49.2% rpoS(543A) and 50.8% rpoS(543C). This is in agreement with earlier findings that lineage I/II is genetically more diverse than lineage I and II (Bono et al., 2012; Eppinger et al., 2012).

coli S17-1, and the obtained strains were used in bi-parental mat

coli S17-1, and the obtained strains were used in bi-parental mating assays. In this case, transconjugants containing pMS32-DIY and pMAO-MS (but not pMAO-RK) were obtained for (1) A. tumefaciens LBA1010 (transfer frequency 3.2 × 10−6 and 2.8 × 10−8, respectively) and P. aminovorans JCM 7685 (transfer frequency 2.3 × 10−7 and 3.4 × 10−6, respectively) – both plasmids transferred, (2) R. etli CE3 (transfer of pMS32-DIY; frequency 1.4 × 10−4), and (3) Brevundimonas sp. GSK2126458 solubility dmso LM18R (transfer of pMAO-MS; 7.5 × 10−7). In summary, the aforementioned results provide evidence that the replication systems of pIGMS31 and pIGMS32

are active only in Gammaproteobacteria, but the mobilization systems of these plasmids function in a wider range of hosts. In this study, three plasmids (pIGMS31, pIGMS32, and pIGRK) harbored Obeticholic Acid in vitro by a pathogenic strain of K. pneumoniae 287-w have been fully sequenced and functionally characterized. These analyses revealed that pIGMS31, pIGMS32, and pIGRK contain different systems for mobilization for conjugal transfer, which are compatible with the helper transfer system of RK2. An intriguing observation was the transfer (at low frequency) of a Kmr derivative of plasmid pIGRK, whose MOB system was not predicted by classical comparative sequence analysis. pIGRK is a small cryptic plasmid, which,

besides the rep gene, carries Orotidine 5′-phosphate decarboxylase only an ORF encoding a protein with similarity

to phage-related integrases. The results of this study strongly suggest that pIGRK contains a true mobilization system, because transfer of this plasmid was dependent on the presence of (1) the helper system of plasmid RK2, (2) an intact int gene, and (3) a short DNA region placed upstream of the int gene (putative oriT). These observations indicate that the MOB of pIGRK is composed of both a cis-required sequence and a trans-acting protein, which is a typical structure in other well-defined mobilization systems. However, the predicted MOB of pIGRK does not share any sequence similarity with the MOBs of other plasmids. Although plasmids encoding phage-related integrases have been described previously (e.g. Werbowy et al., 2009; Zhang & Gu, 2009), to our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that such a protein may participate in mobilization for conjugal transfer. Further studies are required to confirm these observations by more detailed molecular analyses. It was also demonstrated that pIGMS31, pIGMS32, and pIGRK are NHR plasmids, which can be maintained solely in closely related species of Gammaproteobacteria, but not in Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, the MOBs of pIGMS31 and pIGMS32 enabled the conjugal transfer of heterogeneous replicons into several Alphaproteobacteria hosts (from the genera Agrobacterium, Brevundimonas, Paracoccus, and Rhizobium).