All participants were fully informed of the study protocol

All participants were fully informed of the study protocol selleck kinase inhibitor and provided signed informed consent. The study protocol was approved by the Research and Ethics Committee of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria. Data were collected between March and May, 2012. Measures The adapted IPAQ—long Hausa version The cultural adaptation, translation and back translation of the Hausa version of IPAQ-LF is similar to that of the Hausa IPAQ-SF that has been described

in detail elsewhere.21 Briefly, interviews were conducted with public health experts, exercise scientists and local people,

not highly educated, to identify the items and examples of PA on the original questionnaire that needed to be culturally adapted. Several cultural adaptations were made to the original items to reflect the reality in Nigeria. First, adjustments to English words such as ‘vigorous’ and ‘moderate’ activity, which can be misunderstood and not associated with PA behaviours in Nigeria, were replaced with words that are more representative of the language used in Nigeria, such as ‘very hard’ and ‘hard’, respectively. Second, examples of various intensities of activity that are common in the Nigerian culture were added, and those already on the questionnaire but not common in the Nigerian context were replaced with culturally applicable examples

that are equivalent in energy intensity (metabolic energy turnovers, METs) with the original items and examples. Third, concepts such as PA and walking for transportation, which were misconstrued outside the health context, were refined to indicate they were referring to health behaviours. After adaptation, the questionnaire was independently translated from English into Hausa by two native speakers of Hausa who also speak English, and who are able to read and write in both languages. One of the translators was familiar Drug_discovery with the questionnaire and the second was an expert in Hausa. The translated questionnaires were mutually revised by the translators and the research team for consistency and then back translated into English by a third bilingual person who was familiar with the construct measured by IPAQ. The back translated version was checked by the research team for any discrepancies and to ensure that the construct measures by IPAQ had not been lost during the adaptation and translation process.

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