coli strain was Ibrutinib order created in which the chromosomal copy of cusS was disrupted (Table 1). As the Cus system is the primary copper response system in the absence of oxygen (Outten et al., 2001), the sensitivity of these cells to different concentrations of copper was tested in the absence of oxygen. Disruption
of cusS led to an increase in the toxicity of copper in the strain E. coli ΔcusS (Fig. 2). Upon exposure to copper concentrations above 10 μM, E. coli ΔcusS showed a significant inhibition of growth as observed by the cell density measurements. No growth was seen in the ΔcusS strain above 50 μM CuSO4. However, resistance could be restored through the addition of cusS on the pBADcusS plasmid which has cusS under the control of the arabinose promoter (Fig. 2). No significant differences in growth were seen between the strain
ΔcusS/pBADcusS and the wild-type strain up to 100 μM CuSO4. selleck chemical To address the role of CusS in silver tolerance, E. coli ΔcusS and E. coli ΔcusS/pBADcusS (Table 1) were tested for sensitivity to media containing Ag(I). The MIC of Ag(I) for E. coli strains containing the cusS gene either on the genome (wild type) or on a plasmid (pBADcusS) was 50 μM (Fig. 3 and Table 2). In comparison, the disruption of the cusS gene had a potent effect on Ag(I) sensitivity, where the strain E. coli ΔcusS showed Ag(I) sensitivity at 10 μM metal concentrations. The above data establish that the gene encoding the histidine kinase CusS responds to elevated levels of copper and silver in E. coli. Mutants that lack the cusS gene have higher susceptibility to silver compared to the wild-type or cusS-complemented strain of E. coli. The cusS gene is also required for anaerobic copper resistance as indicated by slower growth of E. coli ΔcusS cells in medium containing copper. Previous work has shown that E. coli and yeast cells undergo increased copper accumulation
under anaerobic conditions (Strain & Culotta, 1996; Weissman et al., 2000; Outten et al., 2001). If the role of CusS is to activate the cus efflux genes under elevated copper concentrations, in the absence of CusS, no expression from the cusCFBA genes would occur, and therefore, no efflux of copper is expected from the cells. To test this hypothesis, the levels of copper were Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) examined in wild-type E. coli, E. coli ΔcusS, and E. coli ΔcusS/pBADcusS by growing the cells anaerobically in copper-containing medium and determining copper content by ICP-MS. Escherichia coli ΔcusS, which lacks the cusS gene, showed a steady increase in copper accumulation with a fourfold increase in copper concentration as compared to the wild-type strain after four hours. Supplying cusS on a plasmid rescued this phenotype, as the copper concentration in E. coli ΔcusS/pBADcusS was similar to that of wild-type E. coli. The copper concentrations in E. coli ΔcusS/pBADcusS reached about 76 ng/108 cells after 2 h and decreased to 60 ng/108 cells after 4 h (Fig. 4).