It has been reported that athletes often experience overtraining

It has been reported that athletes often experience overtraining syndromes where they are unable to sufficiently recover their physical condition after a Luminespib purchase certain period of intense, strenuous exercise [7, 8]. This is due to lowered immunity, increasing the susceptibility to infectious disease (diarrhea, fever, pharyngitis, and symptoms of the common cold, etc.) during a prolonged period of fatigue and reduced physical performance [8, 9]. With regard to the potential mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, it has been reported that such prolonged periods of intense endurance exercise are accompanied by increases in inflammatory cytokine

concentrations causing an immunosuppressive effect [10, 11]. This immunosuppressive effect also has been reported to cause athletes to be more susceptible to infectious diseases of the respiratory system due to virus infection after intense exercise [12–15]. Recently, we reported that CT Acadesine cost ingestion by long-distance runners before

a training camp suppressed the increase in blood neutrophil counts and the decrease in lymphocyte counts observed in control subjects after the camp [16]. Similar SNS-032 manufacturer to cysteine contained in CT, N-acethylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of GSH, was shown in clinical studies to significantly suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) from neutrophils increased through exercise [17–19]. These findings suggested that CT ingestion may suppress the

excessive inflammatory response induced by the accumulation of daily intense exercise and inhibit inflammatory-mediated immunosuppression and associated muscle damage in athletes. However, it is not clear whether CT ingestion can influence the above blood parameters before and after single bouts of intense exercise. In the present study, we analyzed the Roflumilast effects of CT ingestion on the inflammatory response, immune state, and indicators of muscle disruption before and after intense endurance exercise consisting of 15 km interval running workouts (1000 m × 15 times), in long-distance runners at a training camp. Methods Procedures This experiment was performed in accordance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and with the approval of the institutional review board (IRB) of Juntendo University School of Health & Sports Science as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Subjects The subjects were 16 male long-distance runners (members of the Takaoka University of Law Track and Field team) attending a winter training camp as previously reported [16]. All subjects signed voluntary informed consent forms and received a detailed explanation regarding the procedures of the study. The 16 subjects were distributed evenly between the two groups considering their age and personal best time for the 5000 m run.

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