Patient with schizophrenia performed worse than controls on all e

Patient with schizophrenia performed worse than controls on all emotions (Scholten et al., 2005) and alcoholic Korskakoff patients performed worse than controls on angry, fearful and surprised expressions (Montagne, Kessels, Wester, et al., 2006). In high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), results with the ERT were mixed. That is, Kessels et al. (2010) did not demonstrate differences between adolescents with ASD and matched controls

on the ERT, whereas Law Smith et al. (2010) showed a worse performance on the emotions disgust, anger and surprise in a comparable Selleck LDK378 sample of adolescents with ASD. Patients with post-stroke depressive symptoms performed worse on the emotions anger, happiness, disgust, and sadness, while non-depressed

stroke patients performed at control level, but in this study, the emotions fear and surprise were not included (Montagne, Nys, et al., 2007). No impairments on the ERT were found in a group of patients with Noonan syndrome (Wingbermühle et al., 2012). PTSD patients had lower accuracy on fear and sadness compared with matched controls Selumetinib concentration (Poljac et al., 2011). With respect to neurodegenerative disease, specific impairments in the recognition of disgust and anger were found in a small group of patients with Huntington’s disease (Montagne, Kessels, Kammers, et al., 2006) and the perception of anger and surprise was compromised in frontotemporal dementia patients (Kessels et al., 2007). Moreover, other research groups also showed intensity-dependent deficits in emotion perception in clinical groups (see, e.g., Assogna et al., 2010; Csukly, Czobor, Szily, Takács, & Simon, 2009), indicating that morphing tasks may be of added value in clinical practice compared with existing, more static emotion-perception tasks. Finally, we would like to address some limitations of our study. First, while the overall sex distribution is balanced, females

are underrepresented in the 12- to 17-year olds, while males are overrepresented in the 18- to 25-year olds. Enzalutamide order In addition, our study sample consisted of participants from different countries, increasing the external validity of our findings, but all were from Western cultures. In relation to this, the ERT only contains Caucasian actors. Our results, as a result, cannot be generalized to people from non-Western cultures or different ethnic backgrounds. Furthermore, intelligence levels were estimated using different intelligence tests, and IQ estimates were not available for all adults. However, in clinical practice, educational level is more often applied than IQ for adjusting performance in adults, as IQ estimates may also not always be available. The use of regression-based normative data has also been under debate (e.g., Fastenau, 1998; Heaton, Avitable, Grant, & Matthews, 1999).

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