“P>Legume root architecture involves not only elaborati

“P>Legume root architecture involves not only elaboration of the root system by the formation of lateral roots but also the formation of symbiotic root nodules in association with nitrogen-fixing soil rhizobia. The Medicago truncatula LATD/NIP gene plays an essential role in the development of both primary and lateral roots as well as nodule development. We have cloned the

LATD/NIP gene and show that it encodes a member of the NRT1(PTR) transporter family. LATD/NIP is expressed throughout the plant. pLATD/NIP-GFP promoter-reporter fusions in transgenic roots establish the spatial expression of LATD/NIP in primary root, lateral root and nodule meristems and the surrounding cells. Expression Crenigacestat solubility dmso of LATD/NIP is regulated by hormones, in particular by abscisic acid which has been previously shown to rescue the primary and lateral root meristem arrest of latd mutants. latd mutants respond normally to

ammonium but have defects in responses of the root architecture to nitrate. Taken together, these results suggest that LATD/NIP may encode a nitrate transporter or transporter of another compound.”
“Biofilm is one of the important virulence factors of staphylococci that plays a role in many device-related infections such as native valve endocarditis, otitis media, urinary tract infections, cystic fibrosis, acute septic arthritis, etc. Biofilm is a microbially BMS-777607 purchase derived sessile community of microorganisms, developed

either from single or multiple microorganisms. Formation of biofilm is a two-step process: adherence of cells to a surface and accumulation of cells to form multilayered cell clusters. A trademark of biofilm formation in staphylococci is the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin. In the formation and regulation of biofilm, some biosynthetic MK-8931 clinical trial genes (icaADBC) and some regulatory genes (icaR, sar, agr, rbf, Sigma B) are involved. In this article, we reviewed the structure and formation of staphylococcal biofilm and its role in medical infections.”
“By temporarily deferring the repair of DNA lesions encountered during replication, the bypass of DNA damage is critical to the ability of cells to withstand genomic insults. Damage bypass can be achieved either by recombinational mechanisms that are generally accurate or by a process called translesion synthesis. Translesion synthesis involves replacing the stalled replicative polymerase with one of a number of specialized DNA polymerases whose active sites are able to tolerate a distorted or damaged DNA template. While this property allows the translesion polymerases to synthesize across damaged bases, it does so with the trade-off of an increased mutation rate. The deployment of these enzymes must therefore be carefully regulated.

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