Role of funding source The study was designed by scientists from

Role of funding source. The study was designed by scientists from Merck & Co., Inc, with substantial input from PATH staff and site investigators. Investigators and their institutions were funded by PATH’s Rotavirus Vaccine Program, under a grant from the GAVI Alliance. Merck was involved in all stages of the study. PATH staff independently monitored study execution at sites and participated in pharmacovigilence, data analysis and meetings of the Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). All authors had full access to the data. The corresponding author had final responsibility for

the decision to submit for publication. buy Metformin Study subjects (n = 7679) were screened and 7504 (98%) subjects were randomized (3751 PRV: 3753 placebo) with 3348 (89.2%) PRV recipients and 3326 (88.6%) placebo recipients eligible for the per-protocol efficacy analyses ( Fig. 1). Exclusions from the per-protocol efficacy analyses were due to subjects incorrectly receiving vaccine or placebo (3 PRV:1 placebo), less than 3 doses (129 PRV:134 placebo),

laboratory-confirmed natural rotavirus infection before 14 days after the third dose FLT3 inhibitor (12 PRV: 16 placebo) incomplete clinical data (255 PRV: 268 placebo), and lost to follow up (4 PRV: 8 placebo). The median follow-up time starting 14 days post-dose three for the analyses was 523 days in the vaccine group and 524 in the placebo group. Efficacy against RVGE. The point estimates for efficacy against RVGE increased with increasing severity of gastroenteritis episodes ( Table 1). The

efficacy against very severe RVGE (Vesikari score, ≥15) was 67.1%, 95% CI (37.0, 83.9) during the first year of life, 33.8% 95% CI (−15.7, 62.8) during the second year of life and 51.2% 95% CI (26.3, 68.2) during the total follow-up period (nearly two years of observation). There were too few cases with higher scores (≥19), as measured by the VCSS, to make it possible to evaluate higher degrees of severity. Efficacy against all-cause GE. The efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against all-cause severe GE (Vesikari score, ≥11) during the first year of life was 23.0%, 95% CI (5.4,37.3) and 15.3%, 95% CI (1.7, mafosfamide 27.1) over the course of the study ( Table 2). For all-cause very severe GE (Vesikari score >15), the point estimate for efficacy during the first year of life was 35.9%; 95% CI (5.4,57.0) and was 27.4%, 95% CI (2.7, 46.0) for the total follow-up period: Given a point estimate of 58.9% for efficacy against severe RVGE, an efficacy of 23% for all-cause severe GE, 39% of severe GE during the first year of life was caused by rotavirus at the five sites. For very severe GE, applying the same equation (with a point estimate of 67.1% for efficacy against very severe RVGE) suggests that 53.

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