The aim of the present study was to verify the safety and efficac

The aim of the present study was to verify the safety and efficacy of play therapy plus toilet training in a small sample of prepubertal children affected by FNRFS.

Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients (group 1; 16 males, mean age of 5.92 +/- 0.84 years) underwent a psychomotor approach therapy program in association with toilet training for 6

months, and the other 26 subjects (group 2; 17 males, mean age of 5.76 +/- 0.69) underwent the sole toilet training program for 6 months. During the observational time period (T0) and after 6 months (T1) of both treatments, the patients were evaluated for FNRFS frequency and for the behavioral assessment.

Results: selleck products At T0, the FNRFS mean frequency per month for group 1 was 20.115 episodes/month (standard deviation [SD] +/- 3.024) and for group 2 was selleck screening library 20.423 (SD +/- 1.879) (P = 0.661). At T1 the mean frequency per month was 6.461 (SD +/- 1.333) episodes/month and 12.038 (SD +/- 1.341), respectively (P < 0.001). Moreover, the delta percent average of the frequency between T0 and T1 was 67.121 +/- 8.527 for group 1 and 40.518 +/- 9.259 for group 2 (P < 0.001). At

T1, a significant improvement in scores on the behavioral scale was identified.

Conclusion: Our preliminary results show the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, and suggest the positive effect of an additional psychomotor approach, as this holds a new and interesting rehabilitative purpose for children in check details a toilet training program, even if further research

is necessary.”
“This paper proposes a technique for simultaneously monitoring the thickness of a SiO2 thin film and the temperature of a Si substrate. This technique uses low-coherence interferometry and has the potential to be used for online monitoring of semiconductor manufacturing processes. In low-coherence interferometry, when the optical path length of a layer is shorter than the coherence length of the light source, the two interference at the top and bottom interfaces of the layer overlap each other. In this case the detected peak position of the interference is shifted from the actual interface, resulting in an error in the temperature measurement, since the temperature is derived from the optical path length of the layer. To improve the accuracy of the temperature measurement, the effect of the overlapping interference was compensated by measuring the SiO2 thickness. The thickness of the Si substrate was 750 mu m and the thickness of the SiO2 film was varied between 0 and 2 mu m. The SiO2 thickness, which is shorter than the coherence length of the light source, was measured from the ratio of interference intensities of two superluminescent diodes (wavelengths: 1.55 and 1.31 mu m). The measured ratio corresponded well with the theoretical one for SiO2 film thicknesses between 0 and 2 mu m, and the error was less than 25 nm. The Si temperature was measured from the optical path length.

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