The major active components of KG are well known, comprising prot

The major active components of KG are well known, comprising protopanaxadiol-type and protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides and acid polysaccharides [14] and [15]. These components contribute ABT-263 mouse to various pharmacological activities of ginseng such as modulation of immune responses, normalization of brain functions, increased activity of the antioxidative system, and attenuation of skin troubles [15] and [16]. As mentioned above, the role of ginseng as an anti-inflammatory remedy has been also proposed by several reports. Red ginseng saponin fractions enriched with protopanaxadiol-type saponins were shown to suppress macrophage-mediated

inflammatory responses [17]. In addition, ginsenoside (G)-Rb1, G-Rb2, and G-Rd were found to have striking anti-inflammatory activities Selleckchem CHIR-99021 [18]. Nonetheless, no ginseng-derived components have been developed as anti-inflammatory drugs, although Artemisia asiatica, a representative Korean herb, has been successfully developed as a specialized anti-gastritis drug. A critical reason for considering Artemisia asiatica for drug development over ginseng-derived components was because of its superior anti-inflammatory

activities. Indeed, ethanol extracts of Artemisia asiatica (At-EE) strongly inhibit NO production, with an IC50 value of 44.1 μg/mL in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, which is significantly lower than those of ginseng-derived components [19]. By contrast, water extracts of Korean Red Ginseng are nine times less potent than At-EE [20]. Nevertheless, we firmly believe that ginseng-derived components may be just as effective as At-EE when considering their ability to modulate biochemical processes. Epigenetics inhibitor Using phytochemical preparation techniques, we developed concentrated preparations of ginsenosides and then evaluated the anti-inflammatory strengths of these preparations on NO production, modulation of inflammatory gene expression, and inflammatory signaling cascades. Standard ginsenosides (G-Rg1, G-Re, G-Rb1, G-Rc, G-Rb2, and G-Rd) were purchased

from Ambo Institute (Daejeon, Korea). Nω-Nitro- l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME), (3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli 0111:B4) were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St Louis, MO, USA). RAW264.7 cells, a BALB/c-derived murine macrophage cell line (ATCC No.: TIB-71), were obtained from American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC, Rockville, MD, USA). Fetal bovine serum and RPMI1640 were purchased from GIBCO (Grand Island, NY, USA), and phospho-specific or total antibodies to c-Jun, c-Fos, ERK, p38, JNK, MKK3/6, TAK1, lamin A/C, and β-actin were purchased from Cell Signaling (Beverly, MA, USA). All other chemicals were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. Dried and crushed roots of Panax ginseng (300 g) were extracted in 70% aqueous methanol at room temperature (25°C) for 2 d.

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