The use of national criteria for epidemiological surveillance of HAIs in these units provides tools to help the reporting of infections, as the association of laboratory data to clinical data proposed by ANVISA may help to improve the specificity and PPV of the diagnosis and reporting of neonatal infections, considering the low sensitivity and predictive value of clinical signs in the presence of suspected infection. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Tanespimycin “
“Nutrition plays an important role in the growth and development of children. Maternal milk contains essential nutrients for newborns in the first months of life and has important functions in socioeconomic and psycho-emotional domains;
exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of life, and should be
continued up to 2 years or more.1 and 2 The mechanics of breastfeeding in newborn are complex, and require the central nervous system to coordinate procedures for sucking, breathing, and swallowing.3 and 4 Children who are exclusively breastfed (EBF) during the first months of life exhibit a physiological suction pattern with more sucking movements, and are better coordinated when compared to those who are artificially bottle-fed; this phenomenon occurs because the orofacial muscles are exercised less in Ibrutinib cell line formula-fed infants, making those muscles more flaccid and hypotonic.5 The movements of milking executed by infants when breastfeeding favor a balance in the perioral muscle forces, and are key factors for the proper growth of the bones and the orofacial muscles, promoting the normal development of the stomatognathic system.6 and 7 When early weaning occurs, the child is unable to perform physiological movements and synchronized suction, and generally presents a tendency toward developing harmful habits, such as sucking a pacifier or the fingers, which can interfere in the process of nasal breathing.8 Breathing is a vital function of living organisms; in humans, breathing occurs physiologically through the nose.9 After birth, several factors can interfere with the regular breathing pattern; these factors can be conditional physical
such as anatomical predispositions or can be present in the environment, in weather conditions, sleeping position, artificial feeding, and oral habits, including nonnutritive sucking.10 Mouth-breathing children are more predisposed to the development of facial changes, click here poor dental positioning, improper posture, and speech disorders.11 These conditions can further develop and trigger cardiorespiratory, endocrine, learning, sleep, and mood disorders that significantly and negatively affect overall health and quality of life.5, 12, 13 and 14 Studies have demonstrated that nose breathers have longer breastfeeding sessions, since the child keeps his/her lips sealed and lead up the tongue in a proper posture and as consequence establishes a correct pattern of breathing.15 and 16 Studies that accurately examine this relationship are lacking.