There was an increase in the TNF-α mRNA in the peritoneal cells s

There was an increase in the TNF-α mRNA in the peritoneal cells stimulated with live M. tuberculosis or PPD. In fact, with the live M. tuberculosis stimulation the mRNA expression was sustained beyond 12 h with a further increase at 24 h compared to PPD. Previous reports from our laboratory have shown clearly that after aerosol challenge with virulent M. tuberculosis Stem Cells inhibitor (H37Rv), high levels of TNF-α mRNA expression were evident in the laser capture micro-dissected discrete granulomatous lesions in non-vaccinated, but not in BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs [41,43]. This was also evident when peritoneal, bronchoalveolar lavage cells, spleen or lung digest cells from M.

tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs were restimulated in vitro with PPD [26,42]. However, recent reports have indicated that secretion of TNF-α was dependent on the virulence of M. tuberculosis, as cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) or chemokine [growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)-α] secretion was found to be reduced significantly when human macrophages or dendritic cells were infected with the Beijing strains of M. tuberculosis

compared to the H37Rv strain [44]. Patients infected with Beijing strains were more prone to disease progression, had higher risk of extrapulmonary tuberculosis or were less likely to respond to treatment [45,46]. Previous studies from our laboratory have indicated that in vitro Carfilzomib cost treatment of peritoneal or alveolar macrophages with rgpTNF-α enhanced the TNF-α and IL-12p40 mRNA expression [24,25]. Again, other studies as well as ours have demonstrated SPTLC1 that TNF-α alone or in combination with rgpIFN-γin vitro-induced expression of MHC class II molecules on macrophages and T cell IL-2 receptors [25,47,48], although TNF-α injection had no effect on MHC class II expression. It is quite possible that TNF-α had an immediate effect on MHC class II expression,

but the effect was not long-lasting until 6 weeks of vaccination. In vitro studies have also shown that TNF-α alone or together with IFN-γ induced an enhanced expression of IL-10 mRNA in peritoneal macrophages from BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs [25]. Injection of TNF-α may be causing intrinsic changes in macrophages in the BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs, as it is known that TNF-α is essential for the differentiation of macrophages into epithelioid cells and in the aggregation of leucocytes into functional granulomas for controlling virulent mycobacterial infection [34]. Clearly, TNF-α injection caused a better clearance of M. bovis BCG in the lymph nodes of these guinea pigs. These results indicate that in vivo administration of rgpTNF-α decreased M. bovis BCG CFUs, increased the PPD skin test response and the proliferative ability of T cells and altered cytokine mRNA expression, thus modulating the function of both T cells and macrophages in guinea pigs after M.

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