Type II cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), in particular IL-4, have been

Type II cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), in particular IL-4, have been reported to have a critical role in the initiation of DSS-induced colitis[5,

7, 28] and we found, above, that IL-33 can induce serum type II cytokines in mice with colitis (Fig. 3). To define the requirement of IL-4 in colitis exacerbation and type II cytokine induction by IL-33, IL-4−/− mice were given the same treatments of PBS, IL-33, DSS or DSS plus IL-33 as described Epigenetics Compound Library research buy in Fig. 2. As reported,[27] IL-4−/− mice that received DSS to induce colitis showed a delayed appearance of diarrhoea on day 10 and had attenuated pathogenic changes in the colon compared with WT mice (Fig. 4a,b). More importantly, similar to ST2−/− mice, IL-33 failed to exacerbate these clinical and pathological parameters of colitis in the IL-4−/− mice. Compared with WT controls, changes in colon length and histological score associated with administration of IL-33 were also not apparent in IL-4−/− mice (Fig. 4b). In addition, IL-4 deficiency check details abolished the production of IL-13, IL-12, CXCL9 and VEGF in the IL-33-treated group, IL-12 and VEGF in the DSS-treated group and IL-5, IL-13, IL-12, CXCL9 and VEGF in the DSS plus IL-33-treated

group compared with cytokine and chemokine induction in similarly treated WT mice on day 20 (Fig. 4c). However, the serum concentrations of IL-10 were not affected by IL-4 deficiency. We further investigated

the importance of IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) in the context, which is required for both IL-4 and IL-13 signalling. We found that similar to ST2−/− and IL-4−/− mice, the shortened colon lengths in DSS or DSS plus IL-33 treated WT mice were also prevented in the groups of similarly treated IL-4R−/− mice (see Supplementary material, Fig. S3A). The reduced colon pathogenic change was accompanied by reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α, but enhanced IL-4 and IL-13 production in colon cultures in IL-4R−/− mice groups compared with the groups of similarly treated WT mice (Fig. S3B). The enhanced oxyclozanide IL-4 and IL-13 may be a result of the loss of consumption of these cytokines in the IL-4R−/− mice tissues. Therefore, these results suggest that IL-33 exacerbates colitis primarily via IL-4. Data reported in this comprehensive study reveal a hitherto unrecognized effect and mechanism by which the IL-33/ST2 axis exacerbates DSS-induced colitis. Increasing evidence suggests that the development of UC may be attributed to intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and abnormal angiogenesis.

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