Upon interaction of

Upon interaction of Lapatinib chemical structure Fas, a member of the TNF family, with its ligand, FasL, death is induced via caspase activation. Several mechanisms may render cells resistant to FasL-induced apoptosis. Bosentan sensitisation to FasL-mediated apoptosis in HT29 cells was completely blocked by the general caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk, demonstrating the involvement of the caspase proteases. These results suggest that ET-1-receptor blockade allows HT-29 cells to undergo caspase activation, via the Fas pathway. However, ET-1 does not sensitise cells to death induced by TNF-��, another member of the TNF-death receptor family. In conclusion, we have shown that ET-1 is not a proliferation-inducing factor in human colon carcinoma. Blockade of ET receptors either induces apoptosis or sensitises cells to Fas-induced apoptosis.

In colon cancer cells, low concentrations of ET-1, either added exogenously or secreted by the tumour cells, are permissive for colon cancer cell survival, promoting resistance to FasL-mediated apoptosis, while high concentrations of either receptor antagonists or ET-1 promote apoptosis. Acknowledgments We thank Ms S Gros, P Fioroni and B Carnal for excellent technical assistance; Drs A Fontana for the kind gift of FasL-producing cells, J-D Aubert, FT Bosman, F Pinet, G Egidy and O Valdenaire for helpful discussions and suggestions, M Clozel and S Roux from Actelion (Basel) for providing bosentan and helpful comments. This work was supported by grant from the Swiss League and Research against Cancer (SKL 353-9-1996, KFS 947-09-1999 and KFS 1070-09- 2000), the Swiss National Foundation for Scientific Research (Grants 3200-045908.

95 and 3200-064907.01) and the Swiss Programme ��Cotutelle de th��se��.
Extracellular senile plaques and phosphorylated tau-associated intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the two classical microscopic pathologies of Alzheimer��s disease (AD) [1]. Senile plaques comprise a dense core of amyloid-�� (A��) that is surrounded by dystrophic neurites [1]. A�� is a 39�C43 amino acid proteolytic product of a much larger amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP is an integral membrane protein processed by the proteases ��-secretase or ��-secretase to produce ��-C terminal fragment (CTF-��) or ��-C terminal fragment (CTF-��), respectively. These fragments are subsequently cleaved by ��-secretase to produce P3 or A�� respectively, and a cytoplasmic tail dubbed APP-intracellular domain (AICD) [1].

APP proteolysis also releases soluble forms of APP (sAPP�� and sAPP��), and these soluble APPs may also now be considered biomarkers for AD [2]. On the other hand, monomeric A�� (4.3 kDa molecular weight) self-assembles into oligomers. These oligomers eventually deposit as large Dacomitinib fibrils in extracellular space, which assemble as amyloid plaques [1], [3].

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