fructose-6-phosphate transaminase GlmS (BL1175) was detected in NCC2705 as well as in BS49. GlmS links the D-fructose-6-phosphate shunt of bifidobacteria to the early steps of the de novo amino acid sugar biosynthetic pathway, a pathway that is important for the synthesis of cell wall peptidoglycan precursors. The proteins MurA (BL1267) and Glf (BL1245) were not detected in the BS64 cytosolic proteome. Both proteins are involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. MurA is directly linked to the transformation of N-acetylglucosamine in that MurA catalyses the first committed step of its incorporation into the peptidoglycan (Figure 2). Meanwhile, Glf catalyzes the ring contraction of UDP-galactopyranose MK-4827 to UDP-galactofuranose, which is then used to form the galactofuran structures that are incorporated into the peptidoglycan (Figure 2). The spot corresponding to β-galactosidase (lacZ, BL0978) was present in B. see more longum LY2874455 research buy NCC2705 and BS89, but not in strains B. longum BS49 and BS64. When grown on LB agar medium supplemented with X-gal, β-galactosidase activity was observed not only
in NCC2705 and BS89, but also in the BS49 strain (data not shown). This suggests that β-galactosidase activity might be repressed in BS64 and that BS49 may use an enzyme other than BL0978 to metabolize X-gal. The latter is consistent with the observation that several β-galactosidase-encoding genes are predicted in the B. longum NCC2705 genome (BL1168 and BL0259). It is noteworthy that the β-galactosidase LacZ is a saccharolytic enzyme, explaining the adaptation of Bifidobacterium to its ecological niche, e.g., digestion of complex carbohydrates that escape digestion in the human gastrointestinal tract. In fact, Bifidobacterium β-galactosidases show transgalactosylation activity resulting in the
production of galacto-oligosaccharides, which are considered prebiotics . The protein differences observed between the four strains may thus reflect different sugar utilization mechanisms that might confer different beneficial properties for the host in terms of probiotic and/or prebiotic activity. The Leloir check details pathway enzyme GalT (BL1211) was observed in BS89 and BS49. This enzyme is involved in the UDP-glucose and galactose metabolism that links the anabolic pathway of carbohydrate synthesis to cell wall components and to exopolysaccharide synthesis; galactosides are frequently used as building blocks for exopolysaccharides. Indeed, UDP-galactose is one biosynthetic donor of the galactopyranosyl unit to the galactoconjugates that make up the surface constituents of bacteria, e.g., peptidoglycan (Figure 2) [33, 34]. Cyclopropane fatty acid (CFA) synthase (BL1672) was detected only in the NCC2705 strain.