n, also this site have large between mouse fold changes. These genes, including Bmp3, Sfrp5, Mest, Lep and Trp53inp2, are positively correlated with body weight and were previously found to be predictive for adiposity. They are also negatively correlated with the module eigengene, which is consistent with higher expression in the less Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries vascularised region of the inguinal fat pad, sug gesting an inverse relationship between vascularisation and adiposity. We chose to study the inguinal fat pad because it can be efficiently dissected. Gene expression can vary among fat depots and proximity to the inguinal lymph node clearly contributed to heterogeneity in the inguinal fat pad. This limits our ability to generalize our findings. However, our previous experience indicates that other fat depots are at least as variable as the inguinal depot.
The Koza et al. study identified their adipos ity signature, which we Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries have replicated, in epididymal and retroperitoneal fat. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Variable brown fat signature in white fat tissue Several genes in the adipose gold module are expressed exclusively in brown fat, including Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries Ucp1, Cidea, and Cox8b. This module is enriched for fatty acid metabolism and the module eigengene is correlated with Prdm16, which is part of a transcriptional complex that promotes brown fat differentiation and suppresses skeletal muscle cell differentiation. The adipose brown module is enriched with 21 genes of the GO bio logical process muscle contraction. Genes in this module are expressed in both skeletal muscle and brown fat and many are related to brown fat cell differentiation.
We ruled out cross contamination with muscle tissue by inspection of the dissection procedure. The enrichment for muscle contraction appears to be spur ious and reflects a potential pitfall of enrichment analy sis using GO annotation. Most of the variation in the adipose gold Batimastat and adipose brown modules is attributable to the within mouse component, which suggests a hetero geneous spatial distribution of brown fat within the inguinal fat pad. However, large between mouse fold changes, including Ckm, with 56 fold change, the largest observed in this study, suggest that the proportion of brown fat may also vary across mice. Brown fat tissue proportion have previously been shown to vary with age, strain, and environmental conditions.
Region specific variation of gene expression in heart The heart is composed primarily of cardiac smooth muscle, but it is differentiated into atrial, ventricular and trabecular regions selleck chemicals Trichostatin A with a left right asymmetry. Sev eral genes expressed in atria and trabeculae of the heart are repressed in the ventricles, in part, through activity of the transcription factor, Gata4. The heart green module is enriched for these genes and shows a pattern of within mouse variation with little between mouse variation. Gata4 is in the heart red module, which has a strong within mouse correlation to the heart green module. Gata4 is negatively correlated with the heart red eigeng