Nucleic Acids Res 1979, 247:1513–1523 CrossRef 29 Sambrook J, Fr

Nucleic Acids Res 1979, 247:1513–1523.CrossRef 29. Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T: Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Nec-1s mw 2nd edition. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1989. 30. Leverton LQ, Kaper JB: Temporal expression of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in an in vitro model of infection. Infect Immun 2005, 73:1034–1043.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef 31. Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD: Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods 2001, 25:402–408.PubMedCrossRef Competing MGCD0103 clinical trial interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions LEPS

and TBS performed experiments and analyzed data. NPS and ICAS wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Lactobacilli have long been of interest click here to the dairy and agriculture industries, in fact, they are defined as generally regarded as safe (e.g. through regulatory agency), and some have been found as ubiquitous members of the mucosae of healthy subjects [1]. Some studies describe the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the treatment or prevention of infections of the intestinal and genital tracts with different extents of success [2, 3]. It is quite difficult to identify which properties of lactobacilli are required to prevent and eventually treat diseases and to determine the adequate dosage,

duration, and methods of delivery. In respect to vaginal probiotics, the protective role of lactobacilli seems to be based upon two mechanisms, namely, the specific adherence to the vaginal epithelium leading to intensive colonization of this surface, and the control of the remaining vaginal microflora through antagonism against pathogens. As a consequence, the ability of lactobacillus to adhere to epithelial cells and mucosal surfaces is a key criterion for the selection of probiotics [4]. The efficacy of the available commercial products is also strictly dependent on the viability of the probiotic strains contained in the preparations,

since the amount of applied microorganism could be crucial for the effectiveness of the product Amylase [5], and several studies revealed that some health food products did not satisfy the claims stated on the labels therefore minimizing the expected health benefits [6]. Therefore the evaluation of cell viability in conditions that mimic the practical application is a key issue in the selection of probiotics. Also the development of novel fermentation strategies to increase the final biomass yield is central to bypass one of the bottlenecks encountered in the production of starters, probiotic ingredients and medical devices. However, since their growth is inhibited by their primary metabolic product (pH lowering but also lactate effect in buffered cultivations), lactobacilli are rarely cultivated at high cellular density (i.e.

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